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Safari

Sifa iliyotolewa kwa msafiri huko Oviedo , Hispania

Travel ni harakati ya watu kati kiasi mbali kijiografia maeneo , na inaweza kuhusisha usafiri na miguu , baiskeli , magari , treni , boti , basi , ndege , au njia nyingine, na au bila mizigo, na inaweza kuwa njia moja au pande zote safari. [1] [2] Safari inaweza pia ni pamoja na kukaa muda mfupi kati ya harakati za mfululizo.

Yaliyomo

Etymology

Chanzo cha neno "kusafiri" kinawezekana kupoteza historia. Neno "usafiri" Inaweza kuanzisha kutoka Old French neno taabu ambayo inamaanisha 'kazi'. [3] Kulingana na kamusi ya Merriam Webster, matumizi ya kwanza ya neno kusafiri yalikuwa katika karne ya 14. Pia inasema kuwa neno linatokana na Mashariki ya Kiingereza travailen, travelen (ambayo ina maana ya adhabu, kazi, kujitahidi, safari) na awali kutoka Old French travailler (ambayo ina maana ya kufanya kazi kwa bidii, taabu). Kwa Kiingereza bado tunatumia maneno "kazi" mara kwa mara, ambayo ina maana ya mapambano. Kulingana na Simon Winchester katika kitabu chake The Best Travelers 'Tales (2004) , maneno "kusafiri" na "kazi" wote hushiriki mizizi ya kale zaidi: chombo cha Kirumi cha mateso kinachoitwa tripalium (kwa Kilatini ina maana "vipande vitatu" , kama ili kumpa). Kiungo hiki kinaweza kutafakari shida kali ya kusafiri katika nyakati za kale. Leo, safari huenda iwezekanavyo au haipatikani iwezekanavyo kwa kutegemea mahali unayochagua (mfano Mt. Everest , msitu wa Amazon ), jinsi unavyopangwa kwenda pale ( safari ya basi , meli ya cruise , au kikapu ), na kama unaamua " mbaya "(angalia utalii uliokithiri na usafiri wa adventure ). "Kuna tofauti kubwa kati ya tu kuwa utalii na kuwa msafiri wa kweli wa dunia," anasema mwandishi wa kusafiri Michael Kasum. Hii ni, hata hivyo, tofauti ya mashindano kama kazi ya kitaaluma kwenye tamaduni na kijamii ya kusafiri imebainisha. [4]

Kusudi na motisha

Train usafiri - Abiria juu ya treni juu ya daraja ya Nilgiri Mlima Reli , kati Mettupalayam na Ootacamund , katika Tamil Nadu , India

Sababu za kusafiri ni pamoja na burudani , [5] utalii [5] au likizo , [5] usafiri wa utafiti [5] kukusanya habari, kutembelea watu, kusafiri kwa kujitolea kwa usaidizi , uhamiaji ili kuanza maisha mahali pengine, safari za kidini [5] na safari ya biashara , usafiri wa biashara , [5] biashara , [5] kwenda , na sababu nyingine, kama kupata huduma za afya [5] au kukimbia au kukimbia vita au kwa kufurahia kusafiri. Wasafiri wanaweza kutumia usafiri wa kibinadamu kama vile kutembea au baiskeli ; au magari , kama usafiri wa umma , magari , treni na ndege .

Sababu za usafiri ni pamoja na:

  • radhi [6]
  • utulivu
  • ugunduzi na utafutaji , [5]
  • kupata kujua tamaduni nyingine [5]
  • kuchukua muda binafsi kwa kujenga uhusiano wa kibinafsi

Aina za kijiografia

Kusafiri inaweza kuwa ndani, kikanda, kitaifa (ndani) au kimataifa . Katika nchi nyingine, usafiri wa ndani usio ndani unaweza kuhitaji pasipoti ya ndani , wakati usafiri wa kimataifa unahitaji pasipoti na visa . Safari inaweza pia kuwa sehemu ya safari ya pande zote, ambayo ni aina fulani ya kusafiri ambayo mtu huenda kutoka sehemu moja hadi nyingine na kurudi. [7]

Historia ya kusafiri

Wakati safari ya mapema ilipungua polepole, hatari zaidi, na zaidi inaongozwa na biashara na uhamiaji, maendeleo ya kitamaduni na teknolojia kwa miaka mingi yamekuwa ina maana kuwa kusafiri imekuwa rahisi na kupatikana zaidi. [8] Mageuzi ya teknolojia katika maeneo mbalimbali kama vile farasi na treni za risasi imechangia katika mwenendo huu.

Wakati kusafiri katika Zama za Kati kulipa shida na changamoto, ilikuwa muhimu kwa uchumi na kwa jamii. Sekta ya jumla ulitegemea (kwa mfano) juu ya wafanyabiashara wa kushughulika na / njia msafara au bahari wasafiri, mtumiaji wa mwisho reja mara nyingi kudai huduma ya wengi wanaohamahama wachuuzi kutangatanga kutoka kijiji kwa kitongoji, gyrovagues na kuzurura Ndugu kuletwa teolojia na msaada ufugaji katika maeneo usahau , safari za kusafiri zilitenda ziara ya milele, na majeshi yalikuwa mbali mbali [9] katika makabila mbalimbali [10] na katika vita vingine vingine. [11]

Wahamiaji walihusisha mito ya wasafiri wote wa ndani ( Canterbury Hadithi -Studio) na kimataifa. [12]

Kusafiri kwa maji mara nyingi kulipa faraja na kasi zaidi kuliko safari ya ardhi, angalau mpaka kufikia mtandao wa reli katika karne ya 19. Ndege na ndege zilichukua nafasi kubwa ya usafiri wa umbali mrefu katika karne ya 20.

Usafiri wa usafiri

Wasafiri katika British Airways 747 ndege . Usafiri wa hewa ni njia ya kawaida ya usafiri.
Feri ya MS Skania katika bandari la Szczecin

Mamlaka zinasisitiza umuhimu wa kuchukua tahadhari ili kuhakikisha usalama wa usafiri. [13] Wakati wa kusafiri nje ya nchi, tabia mbaya zinapenda safari salama na zisizo za tukio, hata hivyo, wasafiri wanaweza kukabiliwa na shida, uhalifu na unyanyasaji. [14] Mambo mengine ya usalama yanajumuisha kuwa na ufahamu wa mazingira ya mtu, [13] kuepuka kuwa lengo la uhalifu, [13] kuacha nakala za pasipoti na maelezo ya safari na watu walioaminika, [13] kupata bima ya matibabu inayofaa nchini alitembelea [13] na kujiandikisha na ubalozi wa kitaifa wakati wa kufika nchi ya kigeni. [13] Nchi nyingi hazitambui leseni za madereva kutoka nchi nyingine; hata hivyo nchi nyingi zinakubali vibali vya kuendesha gari kimataifa . [15] Sera za bima za magari zinazotolewa katika nchi ya kibinafsi mara nyingi ni batili katika nchi za kigeni, na mara nyingi ni mahitaji ya kupata bima ya muda mfupi halali katika nchi inayotembelewa. [15] Pia inashauriwa kuwa na mwelekeo na sheria za kuendesha gari na kanuni za nchi za marudio. [15] Kuvaa ukanda wa kiti ni vyema sana kwa sababu za usalama; Nchi nyingi zina adhabu kwa kukiuka sheria za kiti cha kiti . [15]

Kuna takwimu kuu tatu zinazoweza kutumika kulinganisha usalama wa aina mbalimbali za usafiri (kulingana na utafiti wa DETR mnamo Oktoba 2000): [16]

Njia Vifo kwa bilioni
Safari Masaa Kilomita
Bus 4.3 11.1 0.4
Reli 20 30 0.6
Air 117 30.8 0.05
Meli 90 50 2.6
Van 20 60 1.2
Gari 40 130 3.1
Kutembea 40 220 54
Baiskeli 170 550 45
Pikipiki 1640 4840 109

Angalia pia

  • Athari ya mazingira ya anga (ikiwa ni pamoja na athari za mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa)
  • Orodha ya wasafiri
  • Njia ya usafiri
  • Usafiri wa burudani
  • Usafiri

Marejeleo

"The World is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page."
Saint Augustine [17]
  1. ^ "Travel." (definition). Thefreedictionary.com . Accessed July 2011.
  2. ^ "Travel." (definition). Merriam-webster.com . Accessed July 2011.
  3. ^ Entymoligical dictionary (definition). Retrieved on 10 December 2011 [
  4. ^ Buzard, J. (1993) The Beaten Track. European Tourism literature, and the Ways to 'Culture' 1800 - 1918. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Road to Travel: Purpose of Travel." University of Florida, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences . (Compilation for History 3931/REL 3938 course.) Accessed July 2011.
  6. ^ (1988). "So Your Community Wants Travel/Tourism?" Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota. Michigan State University Extension . Accessed July 2011.
  7. ^ "Round-trip — Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary" . Merriam-Webster . Retrieved 2 March 2013 .
  8. ^ "A Brief Visual History of Travel" . Accessed May 2017.
  9. ^ e.g. Viking expansion from Scandinavia as far afield as North America and the Caspian Sea (8th to 11th centuries CE), and the Mongol invasions and conquests across Eurasia (13th century).
  10. ^ especially the long-running Northern Crusades (1147-1410) in the Baltic region.
  11. ^ Notably the so-called Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). The importance of mercenary forces rather than nationally-based local standing armies made for widespread soldierly mobility.
  12. ^ For example: Morris, Colin (2005). "5: Towards the First Crusade". The Sepulchre of Christ and the Medieval West: From the Beginning to 1600 (reprint ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 9780198269281 . Retrieved 2017-01-10 . [...] there was a great deal of traffic [to the Holy Sepulchre ...]. A wide scatter of evidence [...] confirms Ralph Glaber's statement about 'an innumerable multitude'. [...] Occasional details in the narratives confirm the regularity of the traffic. Journeys overlapped, and travellers bumped into others on their way back, as Bishop Lietbert of Cambrai did in Cyprus in 1056. Pilgrimage by prominent people, nobles, bishops, and abbots, which can already be evidenced in Germany in the previous century, developed rapidly. In the years after 1000, Count Fulk Nerra of Anjou travelled three times to Jerusalem. [...] Some of the groups accompanying the bishops and nobles were large ones [...]. Large numbers accommpanied Abbot Richard of Verdun in 1027 and the German bishops in 1064. [..] Increasingly, too, the pilgrimage attracted participants from the most distant parts of Christendom. The English knew a considerable amount about the Holy Land, and considerable Scandinavian involvement had already begun in the tenth century.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Tips for Traveling Abroad." Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State . Accessed July 2011.
  14. ^ "A Safe Trip Abroad." Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State . Accessed July 2011.
  15. ^ a b c d "Road Safety Overseas." Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State . Accessed July 2011.
  16. ^ The risks of travel
  17. ^ Varozza, G. (2015). 501 Time-Saving Tips Every Woman Should Know . Harvest House Publishers. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-7369-5951-3 .

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