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New York City Subway

New York City Subway ni mfumo wa usafiri wa haraka uliofanywa na Jiji la New York na kukodisha Mamlaka ya Uhamisho wa New York City , [11] shirika la ruzuku la Mamlaka ya Usafiri wa Metropolitan Transportation (MTA). [12] Ilifunguliwa mwaka wa 1904, Subway ya New York City ni mojawapo ya mifumo ya zamani ya usafiri wa umma, mojawapo ya mifumo ya metro inayotumika sana duniani, na mfumo wa metro una vituo vya zaidi. [13] Inatoa huduma kwa masaa 24 kwa siku kila siku ya mwaka. [14] Katika Juni 2017, Gavana Andrew Cuomo alitangaza kwamba jiji la New York Subway alikuwa katika "hali ya hatari" akitoa ucheleweshaji thabiti, ukosefu wa mawasiliano, na unreliability. [15] Mnamo Novemba 2017, New York Times alidai kuwa New York City Subway "ina mbaya juu ya wakati utendaji wa kuu mfumo wowote wa haraka transit katika ulimwengu, kwa mujibu wa takwimu zilizokusanywa kutoka 20 kubwa." [16]

New York City Subway
MTA New York City Subway logo.svg
4 Treni majani Harlem.jpg
R160A E Treni inayoingia kwenye World Trade Center.jpg
Juu : Treni 4 iliyojengwa na magari ya R142A inaingia kituo cha 125 cha barabara .
Chini : Treni ya E iliyoundwa na magari ya R160A inaingia kituo cha Chambers Street-World Trade Centre .
Maelezo ya jumla
Mmiliki New York City
Maeneo New York City
Aina ya usafiri Transit haraka
Idadi ya mistari 36 mistari [kumbuka 1]
Huduma 25
(Iliyopangwa) [kumbuka 2]

Idadi ya vituo 472 [1] (jumla ya jumla ya MTA ) [note 3] [note 4]
425 vituo vya kipekee [kumbuka 4] [1] (ikilinganishwa na viwango vya kimataifa )
1 chini ya ujenzi [kumbuka 5]
14 iliyopangwa [kumbuka 3]


Utoaji wa kila siku 5,655,755 (wiki za wiki, 2016) [1]
5,758,201 (mwishoni mwa wiki, 2016) [1]
Uhamisho wa kila mwaka 1,756,814,800 (2016) [1]
Tovuti mta
Uendeshaji
Ilianza kazi Oktoba 27, 1904
(sehemu ya kwanza ya chini ya ardhi)
Julai 3, 1868
(kuinua kwanza, operesheni ya haraka ya usafiri)
Oktoba 9, 1863
(operesheni ya kwanza ya reli) [mwandishi 6]




Opereta (s) Mamlaka ya Transit ya New York (NYCTA)
Idadi ya magari 6,407 [1]
Njia kuu Saa za mchana: dakika 2-5 [6]
Off-kilele: 10-20 dakika [6]
Kiufundi
Urefu wa mfumo 245 maili (394 km) [7]
(urefu wa njia)
691 miili (1,112 km) [7]
(urefu wa kufuatilia, mapato)
850 mi (1,370 km) [8]
(urefu wa ufuatiliaji, jumla)




Orodha ya kupima 4 ft 8 1/2 katika (1,435 mm) kiwango kupima [8]
Uchafuzi 600-650 V ( DC ) reli ya tatu ; kawaida 625V [8] [9]
Wastani wa kasi Mph 17 (27 km / h) [10]
Kasi ya juu 55 mph (89 km / h) [10]
Ramani ya mfumo

NYC barabara kuu ya 4D.svg

New York City Subway ni mfumo mkubwa zaidi wa usafiri duniani kwa idadi ya vituo, pamoja na vituo 472 vya uendeshaji [14] (425 ikiwa vituo vinavyounganishwa na uhamisho vinahesabiwa kama vituo vya moja). [1] Vituo viko katika mabaraza ya Manhattan , Brooklyn , Queens , na Bronx . Reli ya Staten Island haifanyiriwa rasmi sehemu ya barabara kuu, kwa sababu haina uhusiano wa reli na mfumo wa barabara, kwa hiyo abiria wanaosafiri kwenye barabara nyingine huchukua feri au basi ; hata hivyo, uhamisho wa bure huruhusiwa Subway City Subway na mfumo wa basi wa MTA. [14] Mamlaka ya Bandari Trans-Hudson Manhattan [17] na AirTrain JFK huko Queens [18] wote wanakubali MetroCard ya barabara kuu lakini hawafanyi kazi na MTA na hawataruhusu uhamisho wa bure. [19] Huduma nyingine ya usafiri usioendeshwa na MTA, Roosevelt Island Tramway , inaruhusu uhamisho wa bure kwa MTA na mifumo ya basi, hata hivyo. [19]

Mfumo pia ni mojawapo ya muda mrefu zaidi duniani. Kwa ujumla, mfumo huu una kilomita 380, [20] [8] kutafsiri hadi kilomita 665 (1,070 km) ya kufuatilia mapato; [8] na jumla ya maili 850 (km 1,370) ikiwa ni pamoja na usafiri usio na mapato . [8]

Kwa uhamiaji wa kila mwaka, Subway New York City ni mfumo wa reli wa haraka wa haraka wa transit katika Ulimwengu wa Magharibi na ulimwengu wa magharibi , pamoja na mfumo wa reli wa haraka wa haraka wa haraka wa saba ulimwenguni; mfumo wa metro (subway) tu huko Beijing , Shanghai , Seoul , Tokyo , Guangzhou , na Moscow rekodi ya juu ya uhamisho wa kila mwaka. [21] Mnamo mwaka 2015, barabara kuu iliyotolewa juu ya upandaji wa bilioni 1.76, wastani wa mraba wa kila siku 5.7 milioni kwa siku za wiki na mchanganyiko wa milioni 5.9 kila mwishoni mwa wiki (milioni 3.3 Jumamosi, 2.7 milioni Jumapili). [1] ridership unaendelea kuongezeka, na tarehe 23 Septemba, 2014, zaidi ya watu milioni 6.1 alipanda mfumo wa Subway, na kuanzisha ya juu moja ya siku ridership tangu ridership mara mara kwa mara kufuatiliwa katika 1985. [22] [note 7]

Ya huduma 25 za mfumo, 22 hupita Manhattan, isipokuwa kuwa treni ya G , Franklin Avenue Shuttle , na Rockaway Park Shuttle . Sehemu kubwa za barabara kuu ya nje ya Manhattan zimeinuliwa, juu ya pembeni , au kupunguzwa wazi , na uchezaji mcheche wa kufuatilia huenda chini. Kwa jumla, 40% ya trafiki iko juu ya ardhi, licha ya moniker "ya barabara". [23] Mstari na vituo vingi vinaonyesha huduma na za ndani. Mstari huu una nyimbo tatu au nne. Kwa kawaida, nje mbili hutumiwa kwa treni za mitaa, wakati moja au mbili hutumiwa kwa treni za kuelezea. Vituo vilivyotumiwa na treni za kuelezea ni kawaida kuu za uhamisho au vituo. [14]

Yaliyomo

Historia

Kituo cha Jiji cha Jiji la IRT Lexington Avenue kilifunguliwa mnamo Oktoba 27, 1904

Alfred Ely Beach alijenga maandamano ya kwanza ya mfumo wa usafiri chini ya ardhi mjini New York mwaka wa 1869 na akaifungua mwezi wa Februari 1870. [24] [25] Upepo wake wa Pneumatic Beach uliongezeka hadi mita 95 tu chini ya Broadway huko Manhattan ya Lower Anwani ya Warren kwenye Murray Street [24] na kuonyesha wazo lake kwa njia ya barabara inayoendeshwa na teknolojia ya tube ya nyumatiki . Gurudumu haijawahi kupanuliwa kwa sababu za kisiasa na kifedha, ingawa upanuzi ulipangwa kufanyika kuchukua shimo kusini kuelekea Battery na kaskazini kuelekea Mto Harlem . [19] (Mwaka wa 1912, wafanyakazi wa kuchimba kwa njia ya sasa ya BMT Broadway Line walipanda kwenye handaki ya zamani ya Beach, leo, hakuna sehemu ya mstari huu unabakia kama shimo lilikuwa ndani ya mipaka ya siku ya sasa ya City Hall Station chini ya Broadway. [27] [28] [29] [30] )

Blizzard Mkuu wa 1888 ilisaidia kuonyesha faida za mfumo wa usafiri chini ya ardhi. [31] Mpango wa ujenzi wa Subway iliidhinishwa mwaka wa 1894, na ujenzi ulianza mwaka wa 1900. [32] Mstari wa kwanza wa chini wa ardhi ulifunguliwa mnamo Oktoba 27, 1904, karibu miaka 36 baada ya kufunguliwa kwa mstari wa kwanza ulioinuliwa katika jiji la New York, ambalo lilikuwa ni Line ya Nane ya Njia ya IRT . [33] [34] [35] Bei ilikuwa dola 0.05 [36] na siku ya kwanza treni zilizochukuliwa zaidi ya wapandaji 150,000. [37] Mfumo wa zamani kabisa uliowekwa bado ulifunguliwa mwaka 1885 kama sehemu ya Line la BMT Lexington Avenue huko Brooklyn [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] na sasa ni sehemu ya Line ya BMT Jamaica . [43] Njia ya zamani zaidi ya njia, ambayo ni sehemu ya BMT West End Line karibu na Coney Island Creek , ilikuwa imetumiwa mwaka 1864 kama reli ya mvuke inayoitwa Brooklyn, Bath na Coney Island Rail Road . [44] [45] [46]

Wakati wa barabara ya kwanza ilifunguliwa mwaka 1904, mistari imeunganishwa katika mifumo miwili ya faragha, kampuni ya Brooklyn Rapid Transit (BRT, baadaye ya Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation , BMT) na Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT). Jiji lilijengwa zaidi ya mistari na ilikodisha kwa makampuni. [47] Mstari wa kwanza wa mfumo wa Independent Subway System (IND) uliofunguliwa na jiji ulifunguliwa mwaka wa 1932; [48] mfumo huu ulikusudiwa kushindana na mifumo ya kibinafsi na kuruhusu baadhi ya reli zilizoinuliwa zivunjishwe, lakini ziko ndani ya msingi wa Jiji kwa sababu ya mji mkuu wake wa mwanzo. [11] Hii ilihitajika ili kukimbia 'kwa gharama', inahitaji kusafirisha mapato mara mbili ya dola maarufu kwa wakati huo. [49]

Mwaka wa 1940, mji huo ulinunua mifumo miwili ya faragha. Baadhi ya mistari iliyoinuliwa iliacha huduma mara moja wakati wengine walifunga mara baada ya hapo. [50] Ushirikiano ulikuwa mwepesi, lakini uhusiano kadhaa ulijengwa kati ya IND na BMT; [51] [52] [53] hizi sasa zinafanya kazi kama mgawanyiko mmoja unaoitwa B Division . Tangu vichuguko vya IRT , curves kali, na vituo ni vidogo sana na kwa hiyo hawezi kuingilia magari ya D Division, IRT inabaki mgawanyiko wake, Idara ya A. [54] Hata hivyo, uhamisho wa abiria wengi kati ya vituo vya makampuni matatu ya zamani yameundwa, na kuruhusu mtandao wote ufanyike kama kitengo kimoja. [55]

Mamlaka ya Uhamisho ya Jiji la New York (NYCTA), mamlaka ya umma iliyoongozwa na New York City, iliundwa mwaka wa 1953 ili kuchukua shughuli za barabara kuu ya barabara, barabara na barabara, na kuwekwa chini ya mamlaka ya Mamlaka ya Usafiri wa Metropolitan Metropolitan 1968. [55] [56]

Graffiti ikawa ishara inayojulikana ya kupungua kwa huduma wakati wa miaka ya 1970.

Iliyoandaliwa mwaka wa 1934 na wafanyakazi wa transit wa BRT, IRT, na IND, [57] Umoja wa Wafanyakazi wa Usafiri wa Amerika Mitaa 100 bado huwa ni vyama vya wafanyakazi vya ukubwa na vyema zaidi. [58] Tangu mwanzilishi wa muungano, kumekuwa na mgomo wa muungano wa tatu juu ya migogoro ya mkataba na MTA: [59] siku 12 mwaka wa 1966 , [60] [61] siku 11 mwaka 1980 , [62] na siku tatu mwaka 2005 . [63] [64]

Katika miaka ya 1970 na 1980, Subway ya New York City ilikuwa chini kabisa. [65] [66] Uhamiaji ulikuwa umeshuka hadi ngazi za 1910, na graffiti na uhalifu zilikuwa zikienea kwenye barabara kuu; Kwa ujumla, barabara kuu ilikuwa imetunza vizuri wakati huo, na kuchelewesha na kufuatilia matatizo yalikuwa ya kawaida. Hata hivyo, NYCTA iliweza kufungua vituo vya sita vya barabara za chini katika miaka ya 1980, [67] [68] hufanya meli ya sasa ya magari ya subway graffiti-bure, na pia amri magari 1,775 mpya ya barabara kuu. [69] Mapema miaka ya 1990, hali ilikuwa imeongezeka kwa kiasi kikubwa, ingawa matengenezo ya nyuma yaliyokusanywa wakati wa miaka 20 bado yanatengenezwa leo. [66]

Kituo cha Anwani ya Cortlandt kilianguka kwa sababu ya kuanguka kwa Kituo cha Biashara cha Dunia .

Kuingia karne ya 21, maendeleo yaliendelea pamoja na majanga kadhaa. Mashambulizi ya Septemba 11 yalisababishwa na uharibifu wa huduma kwenye mistari inayoendesha kupitia Manhattan ya Lower, hasa IRT Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line , ambayo ilikuwa mbio moja kwa moja chini ya Kituo cha Biashara cha Dunia . [70] Sehemu za handaki, na kituo cha Anwani ya Cortlandt , kilichokuwa chini ya Twin Towers, kiliharibiwa sana. Kujenga upya unahitajika kusimamishwa kwa huduma kwenye mstari huo kusini mwa Chambers Street. Vituo kumi vingine vya jirani vilifungwa kufungwa. Mnamo Machi 2002, saba ya vituo hivyo vilifunguliwa. Wengine (isipokuwa kwenye Anwani ya Cortlandt kwenye Line ya IRT Broadway-Seventh Avenue) [71] ilifunguliwa mnamo Septemba 15, 2002, pamoja na huduma ya kusini ya Chambers Street. [71] [72] Mnamo Oktoba 2012, Hurricane Sandy lilitishia, mafuriko vichuguu kadhaa chini ya maji na vifaa vingine karibu New York Harbor , pamoja na trackage juu Jamaica Bay . Uharibifu wa haraka uliwekwa ndani ya miezi sita lakini miradi ya kurejesha tena na kurejesha kwa muda mrefu huendelea. [73]

Mbinu za ujenzi

Unyooshaji wa barabara ya Subway kwenye Ugani wa Subway 7 .

Wakati barabara ya IRT ilianza mwaka wa 1904, [33] [34] njia ya ujenzi wa tunnel ilikuwa kukata-na-kufunika . [74] [75] Mtaa ulipasuka ili kuchimba shimo chini kabla ya kujengwa kutoka juu. [74] [75] Utaratibu wa barabarani hapo juu utaingiliwa kwa sababu ya kuchimba mitaani. [76] Madaraja ya muda na madaraja ya mbao yalikuwa na trafiki ya juu juu ya ujenzi. [77]

Makandarasi katika aina hii ya ujenzi walikabili vikwazo vingi, vya asili na vya kibinadamu. Walipaswa kushughulika na muundo wa mwamba na maji ya chini, ambayo yalihitaji pampu. Miili kumi na miwili ya maji taka, pamoja na maji ya maji na gesi, mabomba ya umeme, na mabomba ya mvuke ilirudi. Njia za barabarani zilipaswa kupasuka ili kuruhusu kazi. Msingi wa majengo makuu mara nyingi ulikimbia karibu na ujenzi wa subway, na wakati mwingine unahitajika kuimarisha kuhakikisha utulivu. [78]

Njia hii ilifanya vizuri kwa kuchimba uchafu laini na changarawe karibu na uso wa barabara. [74] Hata hivyo, ngao za tunnel zilihitajika kwa sehemu za kina, kama vile mifereji ya Mto Harlem na Mashariki , ambayo ilitumia zilizopo za chuma. Nguvu za miamba au saruji zilizotumiwa kwenye makundi kutoka mita 33 hadi 42 chini ya Park Avenue ; Mitaa ya 116 hadi 120 chini ya Broadway ; 145 kwa njia ya Dyckman (Fort George) chini ya Broadway na St. Nicholas Avenue ; na Anwani ya 96 na Broadway kwenda Central Park North na Lenox Avenue . [74] [75]

Takribani 40% ya mfumo wa barabara kuu hutembea kwenye nyimbo za juu au zilizoinuliwa, ikiwa ni pamoja na miundo ya chuma au ya chuma iliyopandwa , viaducts za saruji, vitambaa , kupunguzwa wazi na njia za uso. [79] Njia zote za ujenzi hizi zinajitenga kwa daraja kutoka kwa njia za barabarani na za miguu, na kuvuka kwa njia mbili za barabara kuu ni kutenganishwa kwa daraja na majadiliano ya kuruka . Mbali pekee ya mashindano ya daraja la mstari miwili katika huduma ya kawaida ni makutano ya barabara ya 142nd [80] , makutano ya Rogers na makutano ya Myrtle Avenue , ambao hufuatilia wote wawili katika ngazi sawa. [81] [82]

Wafanyakazi 7 700 ambao walijenga mistari ya awali ya barabara kuu walikuwa wengi wahamiaji wanaoishi Manhattan. [32] [83]

Miradi ya hivi karibuni hutumia mashine ya boring , inayoongeza gharama. Wanapunguza usumbufu katika ngazi ya mitaani na kuepuka huduma zilizopo tayari. [84] Mifano ya miradi kama hiyo ni pamoja na ugani wa IRT Line Line [85] [86] [87] [88] na Nambari ya pili ya IND . [89] [90] [91] [92]

Upanuzi

Kituo cha Habari cha Jumuiya ya Pili ya Subway

Tangu ufunguzi wa mstari wa awali wa Subway New York City mwaka wa 1904, [33] [34] mashirika mbalimbali ya rasmi na mipango yametoa upanuzi wa mfumo wa chini wa barabara. Mojawapo ya mapendekezo makubwa zaidi yalikuwa ni " IND Second System", sehemu ya mpango wa kujenga mistari mpya ya barabara kuu zaidi ya kuzingatia mistari iliyopo ya subway na haki za njia za reli. Mpango mzuri zaidi wa pili wa Subway Subway, mimba mwaka 1929, ilikuwa ni sehemu ya IND iliyoendeshwa na jiji, na ilikuwa na karibu 1/3 ya mfumo wa sasa Subway. [93] [94] By 1939, kwa umoja uliopangwa, mifumo yote mitatu iliingizwa ndani ya mpango, ambao hatimaye haukufanyika. [95] [96] Mipango mbalimbali ilipendekezwa kwa kipindi cha miaka ya kuwepo kwa njia ya chini, lakini upanuzi wa mfumo wa barabara kuu ulitolewa wakati wa Vita Kuu ya II . [97]

Ingawa njia nyingi zilizopendekezwa kwa kipindi cha miongo sijawahi kuona ujenzi, majadiliano yanaendelea kuwa na nguvu ya kuendeleza baadhi ya mistari hii, kupunguza vikwazo vya uwezo wa Subway zilizopo na uingizaji mkubwa, na muhimu zaidi kuwa mapendekezo ya Subway ya pili Avenue . Mipango ya mistari mpya imesomea mapema miaka ya 1910, na mipango ya upanuzi imependekezwa wakati wa miaka mingi ya kuwepo kwa mfumo. [93] [98]

Baada ya Nambari ya Nambari ya Nambari ya IND ilikamilishwa mwaka wa 1940, [99] mji uliingia deni kubwa , na tu vituo vya 33 tu viliongezwa kwenye mfumo huo, tangu kumi na tisa ambazo zilikuwa sehemu ya reli za faragha ambazo tayari zimekuwapo. Vituo vitano vilikuwa kwenye New York, Westchester na Boston Railway iliyoachwa , iliyoingizwa katika mfumo wa 1941 kama IRT Dyre Avenue Line . [100] vituo kumi na vinne vilikuwa kwenye tawi la LIRR Rockaway Beach (ambalo sasa ni Rockaway Line ), iliyofunguliwa mwaka wa 1955. [101] Vituo viwili ( 57th Street na Grand Street ) vilikuwa sehemu ya Connection Street ya Chrystie , na kufunguliwa 1968; [102] [103] terminal terminal ya Harlem-148 ya kufunguliwa mwaka huo huo katika mradi usiohusiana. [104] Sita zilijengwa kama sehemu ya mpango wa 1968 : tatu kwenye Archer Avenue Lines , ilifunguliwa mwaka wa 1988, [105] na tatu kwenye Mstari wa 63 wa Mtaa , iliyojengwa mwaka 1989. [106] Kituo cha New Ferry Kusini kilijengwa na kushikamana na Kituo cha Ferry kilichopo Whitehall Street-South mwaka 2009. [107] Ugani wa Subway 7 upande wa magharibi wa Manhattan, unaojumuisha kituo cha 34 cha Hudson Yards , ulifunguliwa mwaka wa 2015, [108] [109] [kumbuka 8] na vituo vya tatu kwenye Subway ya pili Avenue katika Upper East Side walifunguliwa mwanzoni mwa 2017. [110]

Mipango na njia

Ishara ya digital upande wa treni R142 kwenye 4
Kituo cha barabara cha 125 kwenye barabara ya IRT Broadway-Seventh Avenue

Mifumo mingi ya haraka ya usafiri huendesha njia za kimara, hivyo kwamba "mstari" wa treni ni zaidi au chini sawa na treni "njia". Katika jiji la New York, hata hivyo, mabadiliko ya mara kwa mara hubadilishwa mara nyingi kwa sababu ya mabadiliko katika upatikanaji wa uhusiano au usanidi wa mifumo ya huduma. Ndani ya nomenclature ya barabara kuu , "mstari" inaelezea track track ya reli au mfululizo wa nyimbo ambazo treni "njia" hutumia njia yake kutoka terminal moja hadi nyingine. "Njia" (pia huitwa "huduma") zinajulikana kwa barua au namba na "Mipira" zina majina. Pia ni majina ya treni, kama ilivyoonyeshwa katika wimbo wa Billy Strayhorn " Chukua" A "Train ". [14]

Kuna huduma 25 za treni katika mfumo wa chini, ikiwa ni pamoja na shuttles tatu mfupi . Njia kila ina rangi na jina la ndani au la kuelezea linalowakilisha mstari wa trunk ya Manhattan ya huduma fulani. Rangi ya kijani ya rangi ni pekee iliyotolewa kwa njia ya Line Crosstown , ambayo inafanya kazi kabisa nje ya Manhattan, wakati shuttles wote hupewa rangi nyeusi. [117] [117] Mstari na huduma hazijajulikana kwa rangi (kwa mfano, Blue Line au Green Line) na wenyeji wa New York au kwa wakazi wengi wa New York, lakini nje ya wajiji na watalii mara nyingi wanataja njia ya chini mistari kwa rangi. [14] [118] [119]

Ya 1 , C , G , L , M , R , na W ya treni ni za ndani na hufanya yote. Ya 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , A , B , D , E , F , N na Q treni zina sehemu za huduma ya wazi na ya ndani. Kwa kawaida, mafunzo ya J hufanya kazi ndani, lakini wakati wa saa za kukimbilia hujiunga na treni ya Z katika mwelekeo wa kilele; J na Z kukimbia ndani, kuelezea au kuruka-kuruka kwenye sehemu tofauti za njia yao iliyoshirikiwa. Ya 6 na 7 pia ni ya ndani, lakini wakati wa saa za kukimbilia, kuelezea aina tofauti za njia, zilizochaguliwa na alama za njia za almasi, zinaendeshwa pamoja na wananchi. Barua S inatumiwa kwa huduma tatu za kuhamisha: Uhamisho wa Franklin Avenue , Rockaway Park Shuttle , na Shuttle ya Anwani 42 . [117] [120]

Ingawa mfumo wa barabara kuu hufanya kazi kwa saa 24 , [14] wakati wa masaa ya usiku mchana baadhi ya njia zilizochaguliwa hazikimbizi, zinaendesha kama njia fupi (mara nyingi inajulikana kama toleo la 'shuttle' la mshirika wake wa urefu kamili ) au kukimbia na muundo tofauti wa kuacha. Hizi ni kawaida zinaonyeshwa na ishara ndogo, sekondari ya saini kwenye viwanja vya kituo. [117] [121] Kwa sababu hakuna mfumo wa kuacha usiku kwa ajili ya matengenezo, tracks na vituo vya lazima kuhifadhiwa wakati mfumo unafanya kazi. Kazi hii wakati mwingine inahitaji mabadiliko ya huduma wakati wa mchana, saa za usiku, na mwishoni mwa wiki. [122] [123] [kumbuka 9]

Wakati sehemu za mstari zinafungwa kwa muda mfupi kwa ajili ya ujenzi, mamlaka ya usafiri inaweza kubadilisha mabasi ya kuhamisha ya bure (kwa kutumia meli ya Bus Bus Bus Operations ya MTA ) kuchukua nafasi ya njia ambazo zinaweza kukimbia kwenye mistari hii. [124] Mamlaka ya Transit inatangaza mabadiliko ya huduma iliyopangwa kupitia tovuti yake, [125] kupitia mipango iliyowekwa kwenye ukuta na vitu vya ndani vya gari la barabara, [126] na kupitia ukurasa wa Twitter . [127]

Utaratibu wa majina

Msingi wa Trunk line Rangi [128] [129] Pantone [130] Hexadecimal Vipengele vya huduma
IND ya nane ya mstari wa barabara Bluu iliyo wazi PMS 286 # 2850ad "Treni" A "C" treni A "E" treni
IND ya sita ya mstari wa barabara Nyekundu ya machungwa PMS 165 # ff6319 "B" treni A "D" treni A F "treni A "M" treni
IND Crosstown Line Lime kijani PMS 376 # 6cbe45 "G" treni
BMT Line ya Canarsie Mwanga slate kijivu 50% nyeusi #7a9ac "L" treni
BMT Line ya Nassau Street Terra cotta kahawia PMS 154 # 996633 "J" treni "M" treni "Z" treni A
BMT Broadway Line Njano ya njano PMS 116 # fccc0a "N" treni A "Q" treni A "R" treni A "W" treni
Kituo cha Broadway-Seventh Avenue Nyanya nyekundu PMS 185 # ee352e "1" treni "2" treni "3" treni
IRT Lexington Avenue Line Apple ya kijani PMS 355 # 00933c "4" treni A "5" treni A "6" treni "6" treni ya kueleza
IRT Kupiga Line Raspberry PMS Purple # b933ad "7" treni "7" kuelezea treni A
Shuttles Kijivu cha slate kijivu 70% nyeusi # 808183 treni ya kuhamisha

barabara ya Subway

Ramani ya upeo wa mstari kuhusiana na ardhi; Makundi ya chini ya ardhi ni ya machungwa, na juu ya makundi ya ardhi ni ya rangi ya bluu, ikiwa yanainuliwa, imetengwa, imefungwa au imefunguliwa

Ramani za usafiri za sasa za Subway New York City zinategemea muundo wa 1979 na Michael Hertz Associates . Ramani si sahihi kwa kijiografia kutokana na utata wa mfumo (Manhattan kuwa borough ndogo, lakini kuwa na huduma nyingi), lakini huonyesha mitaa kuu ya jiji kama misaada kwa urambazaji. Toleo jipya lilitumika tarehe 27 Juni 2010, na hufanya ndogo ya Manhattan na Staten Island. [120] [131] Matukio ya awali ya Subway (kwanza yaliyotengenezwa mwaka wa 1958), wakati wa kupendeza zaidi, ilikuwa na mtazamo wa kuwa zaidi ya kijiografia zaidi ya michoro leo. Uteuzi wa ramani ya chini ya Massimo Vignelli , iliyochapishwa na MTA kati ya 1972 na 1979, imekuwa ya kisasa ya kisasa lakini MTA iliona ramani imepotea kutokana na kuwekwa kwa vipengele vya kijiografia. [132] [133]

Toleo jipya la mapema la usiku lilianzishwa Januari 30, 2012. [134] Mnamo Septemba 16, 2011, MTA ilianzisha ramani ya njia ya chini ya Vignelli-style, "The Weekender", [135] kwenye tovuti yake; [136] kama kichwa kinachoonyesha, [137] ramani ya mtandaoni hutoa habari juu ya kazi yoyote iliyopangwa, kuanzia mwishoni mwa Ijumaa usiku hadi asubuhi ya Jumatatu asubuhi. [138] [139]

Washiriki wengi waliozalishwa kwa faragha hupatikana mtandaoni au kwa fomu zilizochapishwa, kama vile hizo kwa Ramani ya Hagstrom . [140] Zaidi ya hayo, ramani ya barabara ya New York City imetumika kama suala la juhudi za kisanii.

Vituo

7 treni inayofika Vernon Boulevard - Jackson Avenue kituo cha (43s)

Kati ya vituo 472 , 470 hutumikia masaa 24 kwa siku. [kumbuka 10] vituo vya chini ya ardhi katika Subway New York City hupatikana kwa ngazi za chini za barabara. Wengi wa staircases hizi ni rangi katika kivuli kawaida ya kijani, na tofauti kidogo au muhimu katika kubuni. [141] Vituo vingine vingi vinaingia ndani ya kutafakari mahali au tarehe ya ujenzi. Viwango kadhaa vya kuingilia kituo cha kituo, kwa mfano, hujengwa katika majengo ya karibu. [141] Karibu vituo vyote vya kituo vina kipengee cha rangi ya rangi au taa za mraba inayoashiria hali yao kama mlango. [142]

Mezzanine ndefu na pana katika kituo cha West Fourth Street katika Kijiji cha Greenwich .

Kati ya vituo vyote vya Subway New York City,

  • 275 ni chini ya ardhi (59%)
  • 153 ni vituo vya juu (32%)
  • 29 ni juu ya tundu (6%)
  • 15 ni vituo vya kukata wazi (3%)

Hii ina maana kuwa 61% ya vituo vya chini ni juu ya uso (59% kuwa chini ya ardhi na juu ya 2% na kituo cha chini chini ya uso). 39% ya vituo vya juu ni juu ya uso au juu ya ardhi. [143]

concourse

Mlango wa kituo cha Bus Terminal cha Times Square-42nd Street / Port Authority

Vituo vingi katika mfumo wa subway una mezzanines . [144] Mezzanines inaruhusu abiria kuingia kutoka maeneo mbalimbali kwenye makutano na kuendelea kwenye jukwaa sahihi bila kuvuka barabara kabla ya kuingia. Ndani ya mezzanines ni maeneo ya udhibiti wa kukodisha , ambapo abiria hulipa pesa zao kuingia mfumo wa barabara ya chini. [75] [144] [145] Katika vituo vya kale vingi, eneo la udhibiti wauli na ni ngazi ya jukwaa na hakuna viungo vya mezzanine. [75] [146] Vituo vilivyoinua vingi pia vina udhibiti wa kiwango cha kupima na kiwango cha kawaida cha nyumba kati ya maelekezo ya huduma. [43]

Baada ya kuingia kituo, abiria wanaweza kutumia vibanda vya kituo (zamani ambazo zinajulikana kama vibanda vya token) [147] au mashine za kuuza vyanzo kununua bei zao, ambazo sasa zimehifadhiwa katika MetroCard . Kituo chochote kina angalau kibanda kimoja, kinachoonekana kwenye mlango wa busiest. [148] Baada ya kuifuta kadi kwenye zuri, wateja huingia katika eneo la kudhibiti nauli na kuendelea na jukwaa. [14] Ndani ya udhibiti wa kukodisha ni "Maeneo ya Masaa ya Kusubiri", ambayo yanajumuisha mabenki na hutambuliwa na ishara ya njano. [14] [149] [150]

Majukwaa

Kituo cha Nane cha Nambari ya Nambari ya Nambari ya Tano kwenye Anwani ya 59 - Mzunguko wa Columbus

Kituo cha chini cha barabara kina majukwaa ya kusubiri yenye urefu wa urefu wa 480 hadi 600, ingawa baadhi ya majukwaa ya IND yanaweza kuwa urefu wa urefu wa meta 201 hadi 227. [49] [151] Majukwaa ya vituo vya zamani vya reli za usafiri, kama vile wale kwenye IND Rockaway Line , ni zaidi. Kutokana na idadi kubwa ya mistari ya usafiri, jukwaa moja au seti ya majukwaa mara nyingi hutumikia huduma zaidi ya moja. Abiria wanahitaji kuangalia ishara za juu kwenye hatua za mlango wa jukwaa na juu ya kila trafiki ili kuona treni ambazo zimeacha huko na wakati, na kwenye treni inayofika ili kuona ni nani. [14]

Kuna idadi ya mipangilio ya kawaida ya jukwaa:

  • Katika mstari wa kufuatilia mara mbili, kituo kinaweza kuwa na jukwaa moja la kisiwa cha katikati kutumika kwa treni katika pande zote mbili, au viwanja vya upande 2, moja kwa treni kila upande. [75]
  • Kwa mistari na nyimbo tatu au nne na huduma ya kueleza, vituo vya mitaa vitakuwa na jukwaa za upande na katikati moja au mbili za nyimbo hazitaacha kituo. Katika mistari hii, vituo vya kueleza kawaida vina majukwaa mawili ya kisiwa, moja kwa moja na kuelezea katika mwelekeo mmoja, na mwingine kwa mitaa na kuelezea kwa upande mwingine. Kila jukwaa la kisiwa hutoa interchange msalaba-jukwaa kati ya huduma za ndani na kueleza. Baadhi ya mistari na huduma ya kufuatilia nne ya kufuatilia ina nyimbo mbili kwa kila ngazi na kutumia majukwaa yote ya kisiwa na upande. [14] [75]

upatikanaji

Kioo cha barabara kinatumika kama mlango wa kituo cha kituo cha 66-Lincoln Center

Kwa kuwa wengi wa mfumo ulijengwa kabla ya 1990, mwaka wa Sheria ya Wamarekani wenye ulemavu (ADA) ilianza kutumika, vituo vya New York City Subway havikuundwa kuwa na upatikanaji wa ulemavu. [152] Tangu wakati huo, elevators zimejengwa katika vituo vipya vilivyojengwa ili kuzingatia ADA. (Vituo vingi vya ngazi ya daraja vinahitaji mabadiliko kidogo ili kufikia viwango vya ADA.) Kwa kuongeza, MTA imetambua "vituo muhimu", vituo vya juu na / au vituo muhimu vya kijiografia, ambavyo vinapaswa kufanana na ADA wakati zimerejeshwa sana. Kuanzia mwezi wa Januari 2017, kuna vituo 117 hivi vya kupatikana; wengi wao wanajishughulisha na upatikanaji. [14] [153] Chini ya mipango ya MTA ya sasa, idadi ya vituo vya kupatikana vya ADA itaongezeka hadi 144 na 2020. [154]

Mnamo Juni 2016, MTA ilihukumiwa na kikundi cha haki za ulemavu kwa sio pamoja na lifti wakati wa ukarabati wa $ 21,000,000 wa kituo cha Subway Road ya Middletown katika Bronx. Ni asilimia 19 tu ya vituo vyote vya mfumo wa subway yalipatikana kwa watu wenye ulemavu kwa wakati huo, [155] nambari iliyoongezeka hadi 24% mwaka ujao. [156] Katika Aprili 2017, wawili kesi za kisheria dhidi ya samtidiga MTA, moja katika mahakama ya jimbo na mmoja katika mahakama ya shirikisho, alidai kuwa mfumo ilikuwa kuvunja moja ya sheria ya haki za binadamu na mji na kukiuka Wamarekani wenye Ulemavu Sheria. Kwa hiyo, suti hizo zilisema, MTA haikuweza "kuondoa na kuzuia ubaguzi kutoka kucheza jukumu lolote katika vitendo vinavyohusiana na ajira, makao ya umma na nyumba na mali nyingine." [156]

Hifadhi ya hisa

Treni ya R32 magari juu ya A treni
Mambo ya ndani ya gari la R142A kwenye treni 4
Mambo ya ndani ya gari la R62 kwenye treni 3
Cab ya dereva ya gari la barabara ya R160B kwenye treni ya N

Mnamo Novemba 2016 , Subway ya New York City ina magari 6418 kwenye orodha. [157] [note 11] Treni ya Subway ya New York City ina magari ya 8 hadi 11, ingawa shuttles inaweza kuwa na wachache kama mbili, na treni inaweza kuanzia urefu wa mita 46 hadi 183. [158]

Mfumo huo una mabonde mawili tofauti ya magari, moja kwa njia za Idara na nyingine kwa njia za Idara B. [159] Vifaa vya Idara B zote ni urefu wa mita 3.05 na pana urefu wa meta 18,44 au urefu wa meta 22.86, ambapo vifaa vya Idara ni takriban sentimita 2.67 na urefu wa sentimita nne (15.65 m). [160] Sehemu ya meli 60 ya miguu ya B Idara hutumiwa kufanya kazi katika Idara ya Mashariki ya BMT , ambako magari ya muda mrefu ya 22.86 m) haruhusiwi. [161] [162]

Magari kununuliwa na Jiji la New York tangu kuanzishwa kwa IND na mgawanyiko mwingine mwanzoni mwa 1948 ni kutambuliwa na barua "R" ikifuatiwa na namba; kwa mfano: R32 . [159] Nambari hii ni namba ya mkataba ambayo magari yalinunuliwa. [163] Magari yenye idadi ya mkataba wa karibu (kwa mfano: R1 kupitia R9 , au R26 hadi R29 , au R143 kwa njia ya R160B ) inaweza kuwa sawa, licha ya kununuliwa chini ya mikataba tofauti na uwezekano wa kujengwa na wazalishaji tofauti. [164]

Tangu mwaka wa 1999, magari ya R142 , R142A , R143 , R160 , na R188 wamewekwa katika huduma. [165] [166] Magari haya yanajulikana kama Teknolojia Mpya za Teknolojia (NTTs) kutokana na ubunifu wa kisasa kama vile ishara ya LED na LCD na skrini za habari, pamoja na matangazo ya treni ya kumbukumbu na uwezo wa kuwezesha Udhibiti wa Teknolojia ya Mawasiliano ( CBTC) . [167] [168] Utangazaji wa uendeshaji wa maisha bado huweza kufanywa kwenye vifaa vya hisa vya zamani vinavyotumika.

Mnamo Machi 24, 2012, MTA ilitangaza kuwa iliamuru magari ya barabara ya R179 kutoka Bombardier . [169] Thamani ya mkataba ni US $ 599,000,000, na treni ya kwanza ya magari ya tano iliwasili Septemba 2016, kutokana na matatizo ya utoaji na uzalishaji wa kuendelea. [170] [171]

Kama sehemu ya Mpango wa Fedha wa MTA wa 2017-2020, magari 600 ya barabara za chini zitakuwa na ishara za umeme zilizowekwa ili kuboresha uzoefu wa wateja. [172]

Fares

Wafanyabiashara hulipa ada moja ya kuingia mfumo wa barabara ya chini na wanaweza kuhamisha kati ya treni bila gharama ya ziada mpaka watatoka kupitia vifurushi vya kituo; yauli ni kiwango cha gorofa bila kujali jinsi wapanda farasi huenda. Hivyo, wanunuzi wanapaswa kugeuza MetroCard yao kwa kuingia mfumo wa barabara, lakini si mara ya pili juu ya kuondoka. [173]

Kuanzia Aprili 2016 , karibu nauli zote zinalipwa na MetroCard; [174] Bei ya msingi ni dola 2.75 wakati ununuliwa kwa njia ya "malipo ya kulipa kwa mara kwa mara" MetroCard, [173] na ongezeko la mwisho la bei lililotokea Machi 22, 2015. [175] Kadi za kutumia moja zinaweza kununuliwa kwa $ 3.00 , na kadi za safari zisizo na kikomo za siku 7 na siku 30 zinaweza kupunguza kiwango cha ufanisi kwa kila safari. [176] Kupunguza nauli hupatikana kwa wazee na watu wenye ulemavu. [14] [177]

Fares zilihifadhiwa katika chumba cha fedha saa 370 Jay Street huko Downtown Brooklyn kuanzia mwaka wa 1951, wakati nyumba hiyo ilifunguliwa kama makao makuu kwa Bodi ya Usafiri ya New York City . [178] Jengo liko karibu na migawanyo ya mgawanyiko wa tatu wa Subway (IRT, BMT, na IND) na hivyo ilikuwa eneo rahisi kukusanya nauli, ikiwa ni pamoja na ishara na fedha, kupitia treni ya fedha . Njia za kupitisha kutoka vituo vya subway, ikiwa ni pamoja na mlango unaoonekana kwenye kituo cha Jay Street IND, kusababisha chumba cha kuchagua fedha katika ghorofa ya jengo hilo. [179] [180] Ukusanyaji wa usambazaji na usafiri ulifanyika awali kwa kutumia malori ya silaha , na treni za fedha zikabadilishwa na malori ya silaha mwaka 2006. [179] [180] [181]

MetroCard

Mfumo wa sasa wa MetroCard

Mnamo Novemba 1993, [182] mfumo wa barabara kuu ilianzisha utaratibu wa kuhamisha inayoitwa MetroCard, ambayo inaruhusu wanunuzi kutumia kadi zinazohifadhi thamani sawa na kiasi kilicholipwa kwa karani ya kibanda au kituo cha mashine. [183] MetroCard iliimarishwa mwaka 1997 ili kuruhusu abiria wafanye uhamisho bure kati ya subways na mabasi ndani ya masaa mawili; kadhaa ya MetroCard-tu ya uhamisho kati ya vituo vya subway yaliongezwa mnamo mwaka wa 2001. [184] [185] Pamoja na kuongeza kwa MetroCards safari ya ukomo mwaka 1998 (kwa muda wa siku 7 na 30-siku, [186] baadaye siku 1 ya "Furaha Pass "na kipindi cha siku 14, ambazo zote zimezimwa), [187] mfumo wa Transit wa New York City ulikuwa ni mfumo wa mwisho wa usafiri nchini Marekani isipokuwa BART huko San Francisco kuanzisha passes kwa basi bila ukomo na haraka usafiri wa usafiri. [188]

Mnamo Aprili 2016, MTA iliomba mapendekezo ya "New Fare Payment System" bila kuwasiliana na nafasi ya kuchukua nafasi ya MetroCard kufikia 2022. [189] Mnamo Oktoba 23, 2017, ilitangazwa kuwa MetroCard itatengwa na kubadilishwa na mfumo wa malipo yasiyo na malipo pia kwa Cubic, na malipo ya malipo yanafanywa kwa kutumia Apple Pay , Google Wallet , kadi ya debit / mikopo ambayo inawezesha mawasiliano ya shamba , au kadi za utambulisho wa redio . [190] [191] Tangazo la Oktoba 23 linataka kupanua mfumo huu kwa mfumo wa malipo ya umeme wa jumla kwa njia za kurejea za barabara 500 na mabasi 600 mwishoni mwa mwaka wa 2018, na mabasi yote na vituo vya chini vya barabara kwa kutumia mkusanyiko wa umeme kwa mwaka wa 2020. Hata hivyo, msaada wa MetroCard unatakiwa kubaki mpaka 2023. [191]

Kisasa

Kituo cha Subway kilijengwa chini ya Kituo cha Kituo cha Kuimarishwa

Tangu mwishoni mwa karne ya 20, MTA imeanza miradi kadhaa kudumisha na kuboresha barabara kuu. Katika miaka ya 1990, ilianza kugeuza Line ya Canarsie ya BMT kutumia udhibiti wa treni ya mawasiliano , kwa kutumia mfumo wa ishara ya kusonga ambayo iliruhusu treni zaidi kutumia tracks na hivyo kuongeza uwezo wa abiria. [192] Baada ya vipimo vya Line Canarsie vimefanikiwa, MTA ilipanua mpango wa automatisering katika miaka ya 2000 na 2010 ili kuingiza mistari mingine. [193] [194] Kama sehemu ya mpango mwingine unaoitwa FASTRACK, MTA ilianza kufunga mistari fulani wakati wa usiku wa wiki usiku mwaka 2012, na kila mistari ya kufunga usiku moja kwa wiki ili kuruhusu wafanyakazi kusafisha mistari bila kuzuia treni harakati. [195] Ilizidi kupanua mpango zaidi ya Manhattan mwaka ujao baada ya kutambua jinsi ufanisi wa mpango wa FASTRACK ulivyofananishwa na utoaji wa huduma uliopita. [196] Mnamo mwaka 2015, MTA ilitangaza mpango mkubwa wa kuboresha kama sehemu ya Programu ya Mitaji ya 2015-2019. Vituo vya thelathini ingejengwa upya chini ya Mpango wa Kituo cha Kuimarishwa , na magari mapya ya barabara ya R211 yataweza kukabiliana na abiria zaidi. [197] [198]

MTA pia imeanza miradi mingine ili kuboresha huduma za abiria. Iliongeza saa za kuwasili "saa za kuhesabu" kwa vituo vingi vya Idara na BMT Canarsie Line ( L treni) mwishoni mwa mwaka 2011, kuruhusu abiria kwenye njia hizi kuona nyakati za kuwasili wakati wa kutumia data halisi ya wakati. [199] Mradi huo wa saa ya kuhesabu kwa B Division na IRT Flushing Line ilirejesha [200] hadi 2016, wakati mfumo mpya wa saa ya Bluetooth ulipimwa kwa mafanikio. [201] Kuanzia mwaka 2011, MTA pia ilianza "Point Point ya Usaidizi" ili kusaidia kwa simu za dharura au msaada wa wakala wa kituo. [202] Mradi wa Msaada wa Msaada ulionekana kuwa na mafanikio, na MTA iliweka hati za Usaidizi katika vituo vyote. [203] Kioo cha kuingiliana kiingiliano "Vipimo vya Hifadhi ya Kusafiri", ambavyo hutoa ushauri wa kituo, ratiba, na ratiba, vilianzishwa kuanzia mwaka wa 2011, [204] na mpango pia unenea baada ya majaribio mafanikio. [205] Simu ya simu na data zisizo na waya katika vituo, kwanza imewekwa mwaka 2011 kama sehemu ya mpango mwingine wa majaribio, [206] pia ilipanuliwa mfumo kwa sababu ya maoni mazuri ya abiria. [203] Hatimaye, majaribio ya kadi ya mkopo kwenye vituo kadhaa vya barabara ya chini ya mwaka 2006 na 2010 [207] [208] yalisababisha mapendekezo ya malipo yasiyo ya mawasiliano ili kuchukua nafasi ya mfumo wa malipo ya kurudi kwa MetroCard uliyotumika katika barabara kuu. [209]

Usalama na Ulinzi

Uhalifu, ajali za treni, kujiua na vitisho vya ugaidi wote huathiri mfumo wa barabara.

Ishara

Wayside Block dalili

Mfano wa ishara katika Kituo cha Hudson ya Hudson Street 34

Mfumo huu unatumia Uthibitisho wa Kuzuia Moja kwa moja na ishara zilizopangwa kwa njia ya barabara na kusimamishwa moja kwa moja kwa treni ili kutoa operesheni salama ya treni katika mfumo wote. [210] Mfumo wa Subway wa New York City, kwa sehemu nyingi, umetumia ishara ya kuzuia tangu ufunguzi wake wa 1904, [33] [34] na sehemu nyingi za mfumo wa kuashiria ziliwekwa kati ya miaka ya 1930 na 1960.

Ishara hizi zinafanya kazi kwa kuzuia treni kwa kuingia "block" inayotumiwa na treni nyingine. Kwa kawaida, vitalu ni urefu wa mita 300 (300 m). [211] Ikiwa hakuna treni iko kwenye kizuizi, ishara itaondoka kama kijani. Wakati treni inapoingia kizuizi, ishara inarudi nyekundu, ikichukua block kama ilichukua. Kasi ya treni itategemea jinsi vitalu vingi vinavyo wazi mbele yake. Hata hivyo, ishara hazijisajili kasi ya treni, wala mahali ambapo treni iko. [212] [213]

Treni za barabara zinakamilishwa kimsingi katika ishara zote zinazoonyesha "kuacha" vipengele na kuacha moja kwa moja treni iko karibu na nyimbo; magari yote yana vifaa vya safari. Ingawa hii ni kanuni rahisi ya kuacha treni , wachuuzi wa njia hiyo hawapaswi kuhamishwa kwenda safari ("stop") mpaka itahakikishiwa kwamba treni imefanya kabisa ishara na magari yake yote. [211] [214]

Leo, idadi kubwa ya ucheleweshaji wa chini ya ardhi unasababishwa na matatizo ya ishara. Wakati wowote mzunguko wa wimbo unaacha kufanya kazi, ishara zote ambazo zinaathiriwa hugeuka nyekundu, kwani haijulikani kama kuna treni katika sehemu hiyo, na mfumo huo unarudi kwa hali salama. [211]

Utekelezaji wa CBTC

Mwishoni mwa miaka ya 1990 na mapema miaka ya 2000, MTA ilianza kuendesha barabara kuu kupitia Mawasiliano-Based Train Control (CBTC) . Vidonge vya CBTC, badala ya kuchukua nafasi, mfumo wa ishara ya kuzuia; inaruhusu treni kufanya kazi karibu . Mstari wa Canarsie wa BMT , ambako treni ya L inaendesha, alichaguliwa kwa ajili ya kupima majaribio kwa sababu ni mstari unaojumuisha ambao haufanyi kazi kwa mstari mwingine. CBTC ilianza kufanya kazi mwezi Februari 2009. [215] Kutokana na ongezeko la ustawi usiyotarajiwa, MTA iliamuru magari ya ziada, na kuongezeka kwa huduma kutoka treni 15 hadi treni 26 kwa saa, mafanikio zaidi ya uwezo wa mfumo wa kuzuia. [216] Jumla ya gharama ya mradi huo ilikuwa $ 340,000,000. [211]

Baada ya mafanikio ya automatisering ya BMT Canarsie Line , IRT Line ya Kusukuma , inayobeba treni 7 na <7> , ilichaguliwa kuwa imefungwa na CBTC. [217] Mpango uliopendekezwa unakadiriwa kuwa na dola bilioni 1.4 za dola. [218] Imepangwa kukamilika mnamo Septemba 2017. [172]

Hatimaye, MTA ina mipango ya automatiska sehemu kubwa zaidi, kwa kutumia Mfumo mmoja wa Uendeshaji wa Train (OPTO) kwa kushirikiana na CBTC. Kwa kasi ya sasa ya ufungaji, itachukua miaka 175 kwa CBTC kuwa imewekwa kwa gharama ya dola bilioni 20. [211] Mstari wa Flushing uliendeshwa kwa treni 30 kwa saa kwa kutumia mfumo wa ishara uliowekwa wakati mstari ulijengwa, lakini baada ya CBTC imewekwa inawezekana kuwa treni mbili za ziada kwa saa zinaweza kuendeshwa. [219]

New York City Subway hutumia mfumo unaojulikana kama Usimamizi wa Teknolojia ya Moja kwa moja (ATS) kwa ajili ya kupeleka na kuendesha mafunzo kwenye Idara ya A [220] (line ya Flushing na treni zilizotumiwa kwenye huduma za 7 na <7> hazina ATS. ) [220] ATS inaruhusu watumishi katika Kituo cha Kudhibiti Uendeshaji (OCC) kuona wapi treni zipo wakati halisi, na kama kila treni binafsi inaendesha mapema au marehemu. [220] Watazamaji wanaweza kushikilia treni kwa uhusiano, treni za re-trains, au treni za muda mfupi ili kutoa huduma bora wakati usumbufu husababisha kuchelewesha. [220]

Ajali za treni

Licha ya mfumo wa ishara, kumekuwa na ajali kubwa za treni 64 tangu mwaka 1918, wakati treni iliyoingia kwa Kusini Ferry ikaanguka katika treni mbili zilizozimwa karibu na Jackson Avenue kwenye Njia ya barabara ya IRT White Plains katika Bronx. [221] Ajali kadhaa zilipotokea wakati operesheni ya treni ilipitia kwa ishara nyekundu na kumalizika nyuma treni ya barabara kuu mbele yake; hii ilitokea kutokana na mazoezi ya kuashiria ya "keying by", ambayo iliwawezesha waendeshaji wa treni kufuta ishara nyekundu. Ajali ya mauti, Mtaa wa Malone Street , ilitokea mnamo Novemba 1, 1918 chini ya mzunguko wa Flatbush Avenue , Ocean Avenue , na Malbone Street (mwisho wa ambayo sasa ni Empire Boulevard) karibu na kituo cha Prospect Park cha BRT Brighton Line huko Brooklyn, na kuua watu 93. [222] Kama matokeo ya ajali, hasa zaidi ya hivi karibuni kama vile ajali ya Bridgeburg ya 1995, timu za timer ziliwekwa. Ishara hizi zimesababisha kasi kupunguzwa katika mfumo. Ajali kama vile uharibifu pia ni kutokana na vifaa vya kuvunjika, kama vile reli na treni yenyewe. [221]

Usalama wa abiria

Mipaka ya jukwaa ya njano, hatua za manjano za staircase na matukio ya njano, walijenga kwa usalama, katika jukwaa la 168 la IRT Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line.

Kufuatilia usalama na kujiua

Sehemu ya vifo vinavyohusiana na Subway huko New York hujumuisha kujiua kwa kuruka mbele ya treni inayoja. Kati ya 1990 na 2003, 343 kujiua kwa njia ya chini ya ardhi waliorodheshwa kutoka jumla ya mji wa 7,394 (4.6%) na kujiua kwa njia ya chini ya ardhi iliongezeka kwa asilimia 30, licha ya kushuka kwa idadi ya idadi ya kujiua. [223]

Kutokana na ongezeko la watu walioambukizwa na treni mwaka wa 2013, [224] mwishoni mwa 2013 na mapema mwaka 2014 MTA ilianza programu ya mtihani kwenye kituo kimoja ambacho haijulikani, na mifumo minne na mikakati ya kuondokana na idadi ya watu walioambukizwa na treni. Kamera za televisheni zilizofungwa , mtandao wa miamba ya laser imetumwa kwa njia zote, frequency za redio zinazotumiwa kwenye nyimbo zote, na kamera za picha za joto zilizozingatiwa kwenye nyimbo za kituo kiliwekwa kuweka kwenye kituo hicho. [225] Katika kituo cha haijulikani, vipimo vimeenda vizuri kwenye tovuti ya kupima kwamba mifumo hii ya ulinzi wa kufuatilia itawekwa kwenye mfumo wote kama sehemu ya mpango mkuu wa 2015-2019. [226]

MTA pia ilionyesha nia ya kuanzisha mpango wa majaribio ya kufunga milango ya makali ya jukwaa . [227] Vituo kadhaa vya mipango katika Subway ya New York City inaweza uwezekano wa kuweka milango ya skrini ya jukwaa , pengine ikiwa ni pamoja na vituo vya baadaye kama vile sehemu ya Subway ya pili Avenue . [228] Hivi sasa, MTA inapanga mpango wa mtihani wa kufunga milango ya screen kwenye kituo cha chini ya barabara ya BMT Canarsie Line . Kama sehemu ya mpango wa mji mkuu wa 2010-2014, kituo hicho kitaenda kuwa Nambari ya Sita , lakini haijulikani kama hii itakuwa kituo kilichochaguliwa au la. [229] Kufuatilia mfululizo wa matukio wakati wa wiki moja mnamo Novemba 2016, ambapo watu 3 walijeruhiwa au kuuawa baada ya kusukumwa kwenye nyimbo, MTA ilianza kuzingatia kufunga milango ya makali ya barabara ya 42 ya Shuleni la Anwani . [230]

Uhalifu wa

Viwango vya uhalifu vimeonyesha tofauti kulingana na wakati, na kushuka kwa kuanzia miaka ya 1990 na kuendelea leo. [231] Ili kupambana na uhalifu, mbinu mbalimbali zimetumiwa zaidi ya miaka, ikiwa ni pamoja na "Kama Ukiona Kitu, Sema Kitu" kampeni [232] na, kuanzia mwaka 2016, kupiga marufuku watu wanaofanya uhalifu katika mfumo wa chini ya barabara kutoka kuingia mfumo kwa muda fulani. [233]

Katika miaka ya 1960, kwa mfano, Meya Robert Wagner aliamuru kuongezeka kwa Jeshi la Polisi la New York City Transit kutoka maafisa 1,219 hadi 3,100. Katika masaa ambayo uhalifu ulifanyika mara nyingi (kati ya 8:00 na 4:00 asubuhi), maafisa waliendelea doria katika vituo vyote na treni. Kwa kujibu, viwango vya uhalifu vimepungua, kama ilivyoelezwa kwa kiasi kikubwa na vyombo vya habari. [234] Mnamo Julai 1985, hata hivyo, Tume ya Uhalifu wa Wananchi wa New York City ilichapisha utafiti unaoonyesha wapandaji wa kuacha barabara kuu, wakiogopa kuibiwa mara kwa mara na hali mbaya zaidi. [235]

Ili kukabiliana na maendeleo haya, sera iliyotokana na mwishoni mwa miaka ya 1980 na mapema miaka ya 1990 ilitumika. [236] [237] Kwa mujibu wa falsafa hii iliyofunguliwa ya Windows , New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) ilianza mpango wa miaka mitano ili kuondokana na graffiti kutoka treni za chini za barabara mwaka 1984. [238] Mwaka 1993, Meya Rudy Giuliani alichukua ofisi na kwa Kamishna wa Polisi Howard Safir , mkakati ulikuwa unatumika zaidi huko New York chini ya rubriki ya "uvumilivu wa zero" na "ubora wa maisha". Viwango vya uhalifu katika barabara kuu na jiji imeshuka. [239] Kampeni ya Giuliani ilitangaza ufanisi kwa sera ya kuvumiliana na sifuri. [240] kiwango ambacho sera zake zinastahili mikopo ni kinyume. [241]

Kamishna wa Idara ya Polisi ya New York William J. Bratton na mwandishi wa Fixing Broken Windows , George L. Kelling , hata hivyo, alisema polisi walicheza "muhimu, hata kati," katika kupunguza viwango vya uhalifu. [235] Mwelekeo uliendelea na mrithi wa Giuliani, Michael Bloomberg , alisema katika kutolewa kwa vyombo vya habari vya Novemba 2004: "Leo, mfumo wa barabara ya chini ni salama zaidi kuliko ilivyokuwa wakati wowote tangu tulianza kuweka takwimu za uhalifu wa barabara karibu miaka 40 iliyopita." [242]

Picha ya

Baada ya Septemba 11, 2001, mashambulizi, MTA ilifanya tahadhari kali juu ya mtu yeyote anayechukua picha au kurekodi video ndani ya mfumo na kupendekezwa kupiga marufuku picha zote na kurekodi katika mkutano uliozunguka Juni 2004. [243] Hata hivyo, kutokana na majibu ya nguvu kutoka kwa wote wawili umma na kutoka kwa makundi ya haki za kiraia, utawala wa mwenendo ulipunguzwa. Mnamo Novemba 2004, MTA tena iliweka sheria hii kwa idhini, lakini tena ilikanushwa, [244] ingawa polisi wengi na wafanyakazi wa transit bado wanakabiliana na wanadhulumu watu wanaotumia picha au video. [245] Hata hivyo, mnamo Aprili 3, 2009, NYPD ilitoa maagizo kwa maafisa wakisema kuwa ni kisheria kuchukua picha ndani ya mfumo wa njia ya chini ya barabara kwa muda mrefu kama haifai na shughuli za tuhuma. [246]

Kwa sasa, Kanuni za Maadili ya MTA, Vikwazo vya Maeneo na Shughuli zinaonyesha kwamba mtu yeyote anaweza kuchukua picha au kurekodi video, isipokuwa hawatumii zana yoyote tatu: taa, tafakari, au safari. Vifaa hivi tatu vinaruhusiwa tu na waandishi wa habari ambao wana kitambulisho kilichotolewa na NYPD. [247]

Ugaidi kuzuia

Mnamo Julai 22, 2005, kwa kukabiliana na mabomu huko London , polisi ya New York City Transit ilianzisha sera mpya ya mifuko ya abiria ya kutafuta nasi wakati wao walipokaribia turntiles. NYPD ilidai kwamba hakuna fomu ya ufanisi wa rangi utafanyika wakati utafutaji huu ulifanyika. NYPD imeingia moto kutoka kwa vikundi vingine vinavyotaka utafutaji wa random bila aina yoyote ya tathmini ya tishio ingekuwa haina maana. Donna Lieberman, Mkurugenzi Mtendaji wa NYCLU , alisema, "Sera hii ya utafutaji wa mifuko ya NYPD haijawahi kutokea, halali na haifai .. Ni muhimu kwamba polisi kuwa na nguvu katika kudumisha usalama katika usafiri wa umma .. Lakini wasiwasi wetu halisi kuhusu ugaidi haukubali haki ya NYPD kuwatia mamilioni ya watu wasiokuwa na hatia kwa utafutaji usio na hisia kwa namna ambayo haijatambui mtu yeyote anayetaka kushiriki katika shughuli za kigaidi na haiwezekani kuwa na madhara yoyote ya kuzuia shughuli za kigaidi. " [248] Utafutaji ulifanywa na Mahakama ya Mahakama ya Umoja wa Mataifa kwa Mzunguko wa Pili katika MacWade v Kelly . [249]

Mnamo Aprili 11, 2008, MTA kupokea Ferrara Fire Apparatus Hatari vya Response lori , ambayo ilitoka katika huduma siku tatu baadaye. Itatumika katika kesi ya mashambulizi ya kemikali au bioterrorist . [250]

Najibullah Zazi na wengine walikamatwa mnamo Septemba 2009 na waliomba hatia mwaka 2010 kuwa sehemu ya mpango wa al-Qaeda wa kufanya mabomu ya kujiua kwenye mfumo wa barabara kuu ya New York City. [251] [252]

Changamoto

Kupunguzwa kwa bajeti ya 2009-2010

Kituo cha Anwani ya 28 baada ya treni ya W imekoma katikati ya mwaka wa 2010. Kumbuka mkanda mweusi wa kijivu ulifunikwa juu ya bullet W. (Ishara hii imebadilishwa tangu kutokana na marejesho ya W mwaka wa 2016.)

MTA ilikabiliwa na upungufu wa bajeti ya dola bilioni 1.2 za mwaka 2009. [253] Hii ilisababisha ongezeko la kuongezeka kwa bei (mara tatu kutoka mwaka 2008 hadi 2010) [254] na kupunguzwa kwa huduma (ikiwa ni pamoja na kuondokana na huduma mbili za Subway wakati wa sehemu, V na W ). Njia nyingine nyingi zilibadilishwa kama matokeo ya upungufu. N alifanyika eneo la wakati wote huko Manhattan (kinyume na kuwa mwishoni mwa wiki wiki / wiki ya kuelezea kabla ya 2010), wakati Q ilipanuliwa vituo vya kaskazini kuelekea Boulevard ya Astoria-Ditmars siku za wiki, wote kufunika W iliyoacha . M ilikuwa imeunganishwa na V , ikipitisha juu ya Connection Street Street , IND 6th Avenue Line na IND Queens Boulevard Line hadi Forest Hills-71st Avenue siku za wiki badala ya njia ya BMT Nne Avenue na BMT West End Line kuelekea Bay Parkway. G ilikuwa imesimama kwa muda wa Square Square . Kichwa cha ujenzi kwenye njia kumi na moja zilikuwa zimeongezeka, na huduma mbali mbali ya njia saba zilikuwa zimeongezeka. [255]

2017 hali ya dharura

Mnamo Juni 2017, Gavana Andrew Cuomo alisaini amri ya utendaji kutangaza hali ya dharura kwa New York City Subway [256] baada ya mfululizo wa kupigwa, [257] [258] moto wa matukio, [259] [260] na matukio makubwa. [259] [261] Juni 27, 2017, watu thelathini na tisa walijeruhiwa wakati treni derailed saa 125 Street , [262] [263] kuharibu tracks na ishara [257] kisha kuambukizwa juu ya moto. [264] [257] Julai 21, 2017, seti ya pili ya magurudumu juu ya southbound Q treni aliruka kufuatilia karibu Brighton Beach , pamoja na watu tisa wanaosumbuliwa na majeraha [258] kutokana na matengenezo yasiyofaa ya gari husika. [265] [266] Kutatua matatizo ya mfumo, MTA ilitangaza rasmi Genius Transit Challenge Juni 28, ambapo wapiganaji wanaweza kuwasilisha mawazo ili kuboresha ishara, miundombinu ya mawasiliano, au hisa zinazoendelea. [267] [268]

Mnamo Julai 25, 2017, Mwenyekiti Joe Lhota alitangaza awamu mbili, dola bilioni 9 za New York City Subway Action Plan ili kuimarisha mfumo wa chini na kuzuia kupungua kwa mfumo. [269] [270] [271] [272] Awamu ya kwanza, yenye thamani ya dola 836,000,000, ilikuwa na makundi tano ya maboresho katika Usalama wa Ishara na Ufuatiliaji, Kuaminika kwa Gari, Usalama wa Usafi na Usafi, Mawasiliano ya Wateja, na Kundi la Usimamizi wa Critical. Awamu ya pili ya dola bilioni 8 itakuwa kutekeleza mapendekezo ya kushinda kutoka kwa Genius Transit Challenge na kurekebisha matatizo mengi yanayoenea. [270] [271] [272]

Mnamo Oktoba 2017, mtawala wa jiji Scott Stringer alitoa uchambuzi wa athari za ucheleweshaji wa barabara kwenye uchumi na waendeshaji. Utafiti huo uligundua kuwa kulingana na muda wa kawaida wa kusubiri wa dakika 5 na mshahara wa wastani wa dola 34 kwa saa mwaka 2016, "kuchelewa zaidi" ya barabara ya dakika zaidi ya 20 inaweza gharama hadi $ 389,000,000 kila mwaka katika uzalishaji uliopotea. [273] Kwa kulinganisha, ucheleweshaji wa katikati ya kati ya dakika 10 na 20 unaweza gharama $ 243.1 kwa mwaka, na ucheleweshaji wa "bora" wa kati ya dakika 5 hadi 10 unaweza gharama $ 170.2 milioni kwa mwaka. [274]

Vikwazo vya uwezo

Mambo ya ndani ya treni Q wakati wa saa ya kukimbilia

Mifumo kadhaa ya barabara kuu imefikia mipaka yao ya uendeshaji kwa suala la mzunguko wa treni na abiria, kulingana na data iliyotolewa na Mamlaka ya Transit. Kuanzia Juni 2007 , huduma zote za Idara isipokuwa Njia ya 42 ya Mtaa wa mitaani , pamoja na mafunzo ya E na L, yalikuwa zaidi ya uwezo, pamoja na sehemu za treni N. [275] [276] Mnamo Aprili 2013, gazeti la New York liliripoti kuwa mfumo huo ulijaa zaidi kuliko ilivyokuwa katika miaka 66 iliyopita. [277] Subway ilifikia urithi wa kila siku wa milioni 6 kwa siku 29 mwaka 2014, na ilitarajiwa kurekodi ngazi sawa ya ustawi kwa siku 55 mwaka 2015; kwa kulinganisha, mwaka 2013, urithi wa kila siku haujawahi kufikia milioni 6. [278] Hasa, nyimbo za kuelezea za Line la IRT Lexington Avenue na IND Queens Boulevard Line zinajulikana kwa kutumia kikamilifu wakati wa saa za mchana. [275] [279] Mradi wa Long Hill Rail East Access Access unatarajiwa kuleta wateja wengi zaidi kwenye Line Lexington Avenue wakati unafungua kuzunguka mwaka wa 2022, na kuzidi zaidi uwezo wake. [280] [281] [282]

Mapema mwaka 2016, ucheleweshaji kwa sababu ya uhaba ulikuwa juu ya zaidi ya 20,000 kila mwezi, mara nne kiasi cha mwaka 2012. Treni nyingi zimesababisha ongezeko la mashambulizi kwa sababu ya watumiaji wengi. Kwa nafasi ndogo ya jukwaa, abiria zaidi wanalazimika kuwa makali ya jukwaa kusababisha uwezekano wa kuongezeka kwa abiria wanaoanguka kwenye wimbo. Suluhisho moja linalowezekana ambalo MTA inazingatia ni milango ya jukwaa la jukwaa , ambalo linapatikana kwenye AirTrain JFK ili kuzuia abiria kuanguka kwenye nyimbo. Ili kuzuia kupiga abiria ambao wanaweza kuanguka kwenye tracks, waendeshaji wa treni wanatakiwa kwenda kwenye vituo kwa kasi ya chini. Ukaribu ulioongezeka wa wapandaji inaweza kusababisha kuenea kwa magonjwa yanayoambukiza. [283]

Kupanua mzunguko wa huduma kupitia CBTC

Second Avenue Subway , ambayo ina masharti ya mawasiliano makao kudhibiti treni (CBTC), ilijengwa ili kupunguza shinikizo juu Lexington Avenue Line ( 4 , 5 , 6 , na <6> moshi) na kuhama inakadiriwa abiria 225,000. [284] Kwa kuongeza, ufungaji wa CBTC kwenye Line la Flushing unatarajiwa kuongeza kiwango cha treni kwa saa kwenye treni 7 na <7> , lakini misaada kidogo itakuja kwenye mstari mwingine uliojaa mpaka baadaye. CBTC kwenye Mto wa Flushing inatarajiwa kukamilika mnamo Septemba 2017. [172] Treni ya L ambayo imejaa masaa wakati wa kukimbilia, tayari ina CBC inafanya kazi. [285] Uwekaji wa CBTC umepunguza wakati wa Run ya 3 kwa 3. [284] Hata pamoja na CBTC, kuna mipaka juu ya huduma zinazoongezeka. Ili huduma ya L iliongezwe zaidi, kuboreshwa kwa nguvu na nafasi ya ziada ya L kugeuka kwenye Manhattan terminus, Eighth Avenue , inahitajika. [123]

MTA pia inatafuta kutekeleza CBTC kwenye Uwanja wa IND Queens Boulevard. CBTC itawekwa kwenye mstari huu katika awamu tano, na awamu moja ( 50th Street / 8th Avenue na 47th-50th Streets-Rockefeller Kituo cha Kew Gardens-Union Turnpike ) ikiwa ni pamoja na bajeti ya mji mkuu wa 2010-2014. Mkataba wa $ 205.8 milioni kwa awamu ya awamu moja ilipatiwa mwaka wa 2015 kwa Siemens na Thales . Kupanga kwa awamu moja ilianza mwaka 2015, na kazi kuu ya uhandisi kufuata mwaka 2017. [279] [286] Gharama ya jumla ya Line Queens Boulevard yote inakadiriwa kuwa zaidi ya $ 900,000,000. [287] Mradi wa Queens Boulevard CBTC unatarajiwa kukamilika mwaka wa 2021. [172] Fedha kwa ajili ya CBTC kwenye Nambari ya Nane ya Avenue pia inapatikana katika mradi mkuu wa 2015-2019. [288] Miradi ya MTA ambayo umbali wa kilomita 355 wa kufuatilia utapokea ishara ya CBTC kufikia 2029, ikiwa ni pamoja na zaidi ya IND, pamoja na IRT Lexington Avenue Line na BMT Broadway Line . [289] MTA pia ina mpango wa kufunga vifaa vya CBTC kwenye Nambari ya Crosstown Line , BMT Nne Line Line na BMT Brighton Line kabla ya 2025. [290] Kama sehemu ya ufungaji wa CBTC, meli zote za magari ya subway zinahitaji rekebisha au kubadilishwa. [284]

Kupanua mzunguko wa huduma ya kilele na kuongeza uwezo wa gari

Kutokana na ongezeko la urithi, MTA imejaribu kuongeza uwezo popote iwezekanavyo kwa kuongeza huduma zaidi ya mara kwa mara, hasa wakati wa jioni. Hata hivyo, ongezeko hili haliwezi kuendelea na ukuaji wa usambazaji wa barabara. [283] [291] [292] Baadhi ya mistari ina uwezo wa treni za ziada wakati wa nyakati za kilele, lakini kuna magari machache ya subway kwa huduma hii ya ziada inayoendeshwa. [123]

Utoaji wa R211 , pamoja na upangilio wa majaribio ya majaribio ya wazi ya R211T umeonyeshwa chini. Utoaji huu ulitolewa na MTA mwezi Julai 2016.

Kama sehemu ya utaratibu wa gari la barabara ya R211 , MTA inakusudia kupima gari la magari ya majaribio ya jaribio la wazi la 10, ambalo linaweza kuongeza uwezo hadi 10% kwa kutumia nafasi ambayo katika mifano ya awali ilikuwa nafasi isiyoyotumiwa kati ya magari. Mpangilio huo ungeweza kupanuliwa ili uweze kufikia hadi magari 750 ya wazi. [293] [294] [295]

Kudhibiti umati kwa kutumia ishara na controllers jukwaa

MTA pia inapima mawazo madogo kwenye huduma zingine. Mwishoni mwa 2015, treni za F , 6 , na 7 zilianza kuwa na watendaji 100 wa "jukwaa wa kituo cha kituo" kilichotumiwa kusimamia mtiririko wa abiria na kuacha treni zilizojaa kwa upeo wa juu wakati wa asubuhi ya kukimbilia, kwa jumla ya wafanyakazi kama vile 129; wafanyakazi hawa pia hujibu maswali ya abiria kuhusu maelekezo ya barabara, badala ya kuwa na waendeshaji kujibu na hivyo kuchelewesha treni. [296] [297] [298] [299] Mwanzoni mwa 2017, mtihani ulipanuliwa hadi kipindi cha mchana wa mchana na ongezeko la watendaji wa jukwaa 35. [172] [300] Mnamo Novemba mwaka huo huo, wasimamizi wa jukwaa 140 na watendaji 90 walipata vifaa vya iPhone 6S ili waweze kupokea arifa za, na kuwaambia wapandaji kuhusu, kuvuruga kwa njia ya barabara. [301] Walinzi wa Subway, watangulizi wa watawala wa jukwaa, walitumiwa kwanza wakati wa Unyogovu Mkuu na Vita Kuu ya II . [283]

Ilifupishwa "kuacha ijayo" matangazo kwenye treni yalijaribiwa kwenye treni 2 na 5 . "Piga kando" ishara kwenye majukwaa, wakumbushe abiria wa kukodisha kuruhusu abiria wanaotoka kwenye treni kwanza, wanajaribiwa kwenye Grand Central-42nd Street , 51st Street , na 86th Street kwenye Lexington Avenue Line. Kamera [299] [302] pia zitawekwa ili MTA itazingatia usingizi wa abiria. [284] [303] [304] [305]

Katika mifumo kama ya chini ya ardhi ya London , vituo vimefungwa tu wakati wao ni wingi, kama kituo cha busy cha Oxford Circus tube , ambacho kilikuwa kinapaswa kufungwa zaidi ya mara 100 kwa mwaka. Aina hiyo ya kizuizi si muhimu bado kwenye Subway ya New York City, kwa mujibu wa msemaji wa MTA Kevin Ortiz. [283]

Subway mafuriko

Mvua kutoka mabomba ya mifereji ya maji yanaingia gari la barabara

Huduma kwenye mfumo wa njia ya chini ya ardhi huathiriwa mara kwa mara na mafuriko kutoka kwa mvua za mvua, hata hata ndogo. [306] Maji ya mvua yanaweza kuharibu ishara chini ya ardhi na kuhitaji reli ya tatu ya umeme ili kufungwa. Kila siku, MTA inakwenda galoni milioni 13 za maji wakati haijali mvua. [307] Tangu 1992, $ 357,000,000 imetumiwa kuboresha vyumba vya pampu 269. Mnamo Agosti 2007, $ 115 milioni iliwekwa alama ya kuboresha vyumba vya pampu 18 zilizobaki. [308]

Pamoja na maboresho haya, mfumo wa usafiri unaendelea kupata matatizo ya mafuriko. Mnamo Agosti 8, 2007, baada ya mvua zaidi ya 3 mm (mvua 76 mm) ilianguka ndani ya saa moja, mfumo wa subway ulijaa mafuriko, na kusababisha karibu kila huduma ya barabara ya kuwa na ulemavu au kuharibiwa sana, kwa uangalizi wa kukimbilia asubuhi. [309] [310] Hii ilikuwa tukio la tatu mwaka 2007 ambapo mvua ilivunja huduma. Mfumo huo ulivunjikawa kwa tukio hili kwa sababu pampu na mfumo wa mifereji ya maji yanaweza kushughulikia tu kiwango cha mvua cha inchi 1.75 kwa saa; ukali wa tukio uliongezwa na onyo kubwa kuhusu ukali wa dhoruba. [307] [311] : 10

Aidha, kama sehemu ya dola 130 milioni na mradi wa wastani wa miezi 18, MTA ilianza kuanzisha grate mpya ya subway mnamo Septemba 2008 katika jaribio la kuzuia mvua kuongezeka kwa mfumo wa chini ya barabara. Miundo ya metali, iliyoundwa na msaada wa makampuni ya usanifu na maana yake kama kipande cha sanaa za umma, huwekwa kwenye saruji zilizopo lakini kwa sleeve ya 3-to-4-inch (76 hadi 102 mm) kuzuia uchafu na mvua kutoka kwa mafuriko barabara kuu. Vipande vya kwanza vitawekwa katika maeneo matatu zaidi ya mafuriko kama ilivyoelezwa na wataalamu wa maji: Jamaica , Tribeca , na Upper West Side . Kila jirani ina muundo wake wa kipekee, baadhi unaojumuisha staha kama ya wimbi ambalo huongezeka kwa urefu na sifa za kuketi (kama vile Jamaica), wengine na staha ya flatter ambayo inajumuisha kuketi na rack ya baiskeli. [312] [313] [314]

Mnamo Oktoba 2012, Kimbunga Sandy kilisababisha uharibifu mkubwa kwa Jiji la New York , na vichuguko vingi vya barabara zilikuwa zimejaa maji machafu. Subway ilifunguliwa kwa huduma mdogo siku mbili baada ya dhoruba na ilikuwa inaendesha uwezo wa asilimia 80 ndani ya siku tano; hata hivyo, baadhi ya miundombinu inahitajika miaka kutengeneza. Mwaka baada ya dhoruba, msemaji wa MTA Kevin Ortiz akasema, "Hii ilikuwa haijawahi kutokea kwa kiasi cha uharibifu ambao tulikuwa tukiona katika mfumo huu." [315] [316] Dhoruba ilifurika majibu tano ya mifumo ya chini ya maji, mifumo mingi ya barabara ya barabara, nadi kadhaa za barabara za chini, na pia kuharibu kabisa sehemu ya IND Rockaway Line na sehemu kubwa ya kituo cha terminal cha Ferry Kusini . Ujenzi mpya unahitajika kufungwa kwa mwishoni mwa wiki kwa mistari kadhaa, pamoja na kufungwa kwa muda mrefu kwa shimo la Greenpoint , Tunnel ya Montague Street , Rockaway Line, na kituo cha Kusini cha Ferry, na kufungwa kwa muda mrefu uliopangwa kwa ajili ya 14 Street Tunnel ; ujenzi mwingine unatakiwa kudumu hadi angalau 2020. [317] Kama kipimo cha kuzuia, viingilio 68 vya Subway Manhattan ya chini pia hupokea vijiti vya kitambaa vinavyotarajiwa kuweka maji ya mafuriko. [318] Mnamo Oktoba 2017, ilifunuliwa kuwa milango na mapazia ya maji ya kilo milioni 1,400 yaliwekwa katika maeneo ya chini ya Manhattan kwa gharama ya $ 30,000 kila mmoja. [319] [320]

Kamili na sehemu ya Subway kufungwa

Mnamo Agosti 27, 2011, kutokana na njia ya Hurricane Irene , MTA imesimamisha huduma ya barabara ya mchana wakati wa mchana kwa kutarajia mafuriko makubwa kwenye tracks na tunnels. Ilikuwa ni hali ya kwanza ya hali ya hewa inayosababishwa na historia ya mfumo. [321] Huduma ilirejeshwa mnamo Agosti 29. [322] [323]

Mnamo Oktoba 29, 2012, ufungaji mwingine uliamriwa kabla ya Hurricane Sandy kufika. [316] Huduma zote kwenye barabara kuu, barabara ya Long Island Rail na Metro-Kaskazini zimefungwa siku hiyo saa 7:00, kulinda abiria, wafanyakazi na vifaa kutoka kwenye dhoruba ijayo. [324] Dhoruba ilisababisha uharibifu mkubwa kwa mfumo, hususan IND Rockaway Line , ambayo ilikuwa na sehemu nyingi kati ya Howard Beach-JFK Airport na Hammels Wye kwenye Peninsula ya Rockaway iliyoharibiwa sana, na kuiacha kimsingi ikilinganishwa na mfumo wote. [325] [326] Hii inahitajika NYCTA kwa lori katika magari 20 ya barabara ya R32 hadi mstari wa kutoa huduma ya muda mfupi (kwa muda mfupi iliyochaguliwa H ). [327] [328] [329] Pia, vichuguko kadhaa vya mfumo chini ya Mto Mashariki vimejaa mafuriko na kuongezeka kwa dhoruba. [330] Feri ya Kusini ilikuwa na uharibifu mkubwa wa maji na haikufunguliwa hadi Aprili 4, 2013 kwa kurejesha huduma kwa kituo cha zamani kilichopangwa kitengo kilichobadilishwa mwaka 2009; [331] [332] nyimbo za mwisho za stub zilibakia nje ya huduma hadi Juni 2017. [333] [334] [335] [336]

Tangu mwaka 2015, kumekuwa na shutdowns zinazohusiana na bluzzard zinazohusiana na blizzard. Mnamo Januari 26, 2015, kufungwa kwa ukamilifu mwingine kuliamriwa na Gavana wa New York Andrew Cuomo kutokana na Januari 2015 nor'easter , ambayo ilikuwa awali iliondoka New York City yenye sentimita 51 hadi 76 ya theluji. [337] Siku iliyofuata, mfumo wa subway ulifunguliwa kwa sehemu. [338] [339] Wakazi wengi wa New York City walimkosoa uamuzi wa Cuomo wa kufunga mfumo wa njia ya chini kwa mara ya kwanza kwa sababu ya theluji. Nor'easter imeshuka sana theluji katika mji kuliko ilivyokuwa ilivyotarajiwa, jumla ya sentimita 25 tu katika Central Park . [340] [341] Mnamo Januari 23, 2016, kufungwa kwa njia ndogo ya barabara iliamriwa kwa sababu ya blizzard ya Umoja wa Mataifa ya 2016 ya Januari , ambapo vituo vyote vya juu vya ardhi vilifungwa; mistari ya chini ya ardhi ilibaki wazi wakati wa blizzard. [342] [343] Wengi wa barabara kuu ilianza tena huduma siku ya pili, na kuchelewa kwa muda mrefu kwa wastani wa thelathini 66 ya theluji katika eneo hilo. [344] Mnamo Machi 13, 2017, sehemu nyingine ya kufungwa kwa njia ya chini ya ardhi iliamriwa siku ya pili kwa sababu ya Machi 2017 nor'easter , ambayo ilitabiri kuwa na urefu wa sentimita 51 kwa eneo hilo . [345]

Litter na panya

Mkusanyiko wa takataka ni tatizo la kudumu katika mfumo wa chini. Katika miaka ya 1970 na 1980, treni chafu na majukwaa, pamoja na graffiti walikuwa tatizo kubwa. Hali hiyo ilibadilika tangu wakati huo, lakini mgogoro wa bajeti ya 2010, ambayo imesababisha zaidi ya wafanyakazi 100 wa kusafisha kupoteza kazi zao, wakatishiwa kuzuia kuondolewa kwa takataka kutoka kwa mfumo wa njia ya chini. [346] [347] Kila siku, MTA huondoa tani 40 za takataka kutoka kwa vibanda vya takataka 3,500. [348]

Mfumo wa Subway wa New York unaathiriwa na panya . [349] Mara nyingi panya huonekana kwenye majukwaa, [350] na huonekana kwa kawaida kwa njia ya takataka zilizopigwa kwenye nyimbo. Wao wanaaminika kuwa hatari ya afya, na juu ya matukio machache wamejulikana kwa kulinda wanadamu. [351] Vituo vya Subway vyema vyema kwa uharibifu wa panya ni Chambers Street , Jay Street-MetroTech , West Fourth Street , Spring Street na 145 Street . [352]

Miongo kadhaa ya jitihada za kuondosha au kupunguza tu idadi ya panya katika mfumo haijafanikiwa. Mnamo Machi 2009, Mamlaka ya Transit ilitangaza mfululizo wa mabadiliko kwenye mkakati wa udhibiti wa vimelea, ikiwa ni pamoja na kanuni mpya za sumu na miundo ya mtego. [353] Mnamo Oktoba 2011, MTA ilitangaza mpango mpya wa kusafisha vituo 25 vya barabara za chini, pamoja na vyumba vyake vya takataka, ya vikwazo vya panya. [354] Pia mnamo Oktoba 2011, MTA ilitangaza mpango wa majaribio kwa kupunguza viwango vya takataka kwenye njia za chini kwa kuondoa pipa zote za takataka kutoka kwenye jukwaa la chini. Mpango huu unajaribiwa katika Chuo Kikuu cha Nane-New York na vituo vya Flushing Main Street . [355] Kuanzia Machi 2016, vituo vya pamoja na Line BMT Jamaica , BMT Myrtle Avenue Line , na vituo vingine mbalimbali vilikuwa na mifuko yao ya takataka iliyoondolewa kutokana na mafanikio ya programu. [356]

Pia kuna treni za utupu ambazo zimeundwa ili kuondoa takataka za nyimbo, lakini hazifanyi kazi na mara nyingi huvunjika. [356] Utafiti 2016 na Travel Math alikuwa New York City Subway waliotajwa kama mfumo dirtiest Subway katika nchi kutokana na idadi ya faida seli ya bakteria. [357] Mnamo Agosti 2016, MTA ilitangaza kuwa imefungua Mpangilio wa Uendeshaji wa Orodha, ambayo ni mpango mkali ambao utapunguza kasi ya kiasi cha takataka kwenye tracks na mazingira ya chini ya barabara, na kwa hiyo inapaswa kupunguza moto wa kufuatilia na ucheleweshaji wa treni . Mzunguko wa usafi wa kituo cha kituo utaongezeka. Katika kipindi cha wiki mbili, vituo 94 vitasakaswa, ongezeko kutoka vituo 34. [348] Kuanzia tarehe 12 Septemba, 2016, MTA ilizindua wiki mbili kubwa, kusafisha mfumo kutoka kwa njia zote katika vituo vyote vya mfumo. Mifumo mpya ya kufuatilia kufuatilia ni kazi kama MTA inafanya kazi na wazalishaji wawili. Treni mpya za nguvu za utupu, mbili zinazofika mwaka 2017, na ya tatu mwaka wa 2018, na magari 27 ya kukataa mapya yatakuwa sehemu ya operesheni. [358]

Mnamo Machi 28, 2017, Msimamizi wa Jimbo la New York , Thomas DiNapoli , alitangaza mpango wa majaribio ya MTA ili kuondoa makopo ya takataka yaliyopigwa. Ofisi yake ilikuwa imeshutumu shirika hilo kwa programu hiyo. [348]

kelele

Kutoa hisa kwenye Subway ya New York City hutoa kiwango cha juu cha kelele ambacho kinazidi miongozo iliyowekwa na Shirika la Afya Duniani na Shirika la Ulinzi la Mazingira la Marekani . [359] Mwaka 2006, Shule ya Mailman ya Chuo Kikuu cha Columbia ya Afya ya Umma ilipata kiwango cha kelele wastani wa 95 decibel (dB) ndani ya magari ya barabara na 94 dB kwenye majukwaa. [359] Kutolewa kwa kila siku kwa kelele kwa viwango vile kwa muda mdogo wa dakika 30 kunaweza kusababisha kupoteza kusikia. [359] Sauti juu ya jukwaa moja kwenye 10 ilizidi 100 dB. [359] Chini ya mwelekeo wa WHO na EPA, ufikiaji wa kelele kwa kiwango hicho ni mdogo kwa dakika 1.5. [359] Utafiti baadae na Columbia na Chuo Kikuu cha Washington kupatikana juu ya wastani ngazi kelele katika Subway (80.4 dB) kuliko kwenye treni abiria ikiwa ni pamoja na Mamlaka ya Bandari Trans-Hudson (PATH) (79.4 dB), Metro-North (75.1 dB) na Road Long Rail (LIRR) (74.9 dB). [360] Tangu kiwango cha decibel ni kiwango cha logarithmic , sauti katika 95 dB ni makali zaidi ya mara 10 kuliko 85 dB, mara 100 zaidi kuliko 75 dB, na kadhalika. [360] Katika utafiti wa pili, kelele ya chini ya barabara imeandikishwa kwa 102.1 dB. [360]

Kwa ajili ya ujenzi wa Subway ya pili Avenue, MTA, na kampuni ya uhandisi Arup, ilifanya kazi ili kupunguza kiwango cha kelele katika vituo. Ili kupunguza kelele kwa vituo vyote vijavyo vilivyoanza na Subway ya pili ya Avenue, MTA inawekeza katika kufuatilia chini ya vibration kwa kutumia mahusiano yaliyowekwa katika mpira wa mawe na usafi wa neoprene. Njia ya reli iliyoendelea, ambayo pia imewekwa, inapunguza kelele inayofanywa na magurudumu ya treni. Mabadiliko makubwa yatakayofanywa ni katika kubuni ya vituo. Vituo vya sasa vilijengwa kwa tile na mawe, ambayo hupiga sauti kila mahali, wakati vituo vya hivi karibuni vitakuwa na vifaa vinavyowekwa na nyuzi ya nyuzi au madini ya pua ambayo itaelekeza sauti kuelekea treni na si jukwaa. Kwa kelele kidogo kutoka treni, matangazo ya jukwaa yanaweza kusikika wazi zaidi. Watakuwa wazi na wasemaji walipangwa mara kwa mara kwenye jukwaa, wakiongea ili matangazo yanaweza kusikilizwa na wanunuzi. Subway ya pili ya Subway ina vituo vya kwanza vya kupima teknolojia hii. [361]

Mahusiano ya umma

Bodi ya Usafiri ya New York City , na mrithi wake, MTA New York City Transit , amekuwa na matukio mengi ambayo yanasaidia kuongezeka kwa uendeshaji wa mfumo wao wa usafiri.

Miss Subways

Matangazo ya Miss Subways katika Makumbusho ya New York Transit

Kuanzia mwaka wa 1941 hadi 1976, Bodi ya Usafirishaji / Mamlaka ya Uhamisho wa New York ilihamasisha kampeni ya "Miss Subways". [362] Katika muziki kwenye mji , tabia ya Miss Turnstiles inategemea kampeni ya Miss Subways. [363] [364] Kampeni ilifufuliwa mwaka 2004, kwa mwaka mmoja, kama "Bibi Subways". Ilikuwa sehemu ya maadhimisho ya miaka 100. Kampeni ya kila mwezi, ambayo ilikuwa ni pamoja na picha za washindi na picha za kibiografia kwenye makanda kwenye kadi za chini, zilionyesha washinda kama Mona Freeman na mkulima maarufu wa New York City Ellen Goodman . Mshindi wa mashindano hayo alikuwa Caroline Sanchez-Bernat, mwigizaji kutoka Morningside Heights . [365]

Orodha ya Subway

Mfululizo wa Subway ni neno ambalo linatumika kwenye mfululizo wowote wa michezo ya baseball kati ya timu za New York City, kama timu zilizopinga zinaweza kusafiri kushindana tu kwa kutumia mfumo wa njia ya chini. Mfululizo wa Subway ni mrefu mrefu kutumika huko New York, kurudi kwenye mfululizo kati ya Brooklyn Dodgers au Giant New York na New York Yankees katika miaka ya 1940 na 1950. Leo, neno hutumiwa kuelezea ushindano kati ya Yankees na New York Mets . Wakati wa Mfululizo wa Dunia 2000 , magari ya treni 4 (ambayo yalisimama katika Yankee Stadium ) yalijenga rangi ya Yankee, wakati magari ya treni 7 (ambayo yalisimama katika uwanja wa Shea ) yalikuwa na rangi za Mets. [366] Neno hilo linaweza pia kutumika kwa mgongano kati ya New York Knicks na Nets Brooklyn ya Chama cha Taifa cha Mpira wa Mpira wa Mpira , au New York Rangers na New York Islanders League ya Taifa ya Hockey tangu Nets na Islanders wakiongozwa kwa Kituo cha Barclays huko Brooklyn. [367] [368]

Holiday Train

Treni ya Nostalgia kwenye kituo cha Second Avenue mwaka 2012

Tangu mwaka 2003, MTA imetumia Treni ya Likizo siku ya Jumapili mnamo Novemba na Desemba, tangu Jumapili ya kwanza baada ya Shukrani hadi Jumapili kabla ya Siku ya Krismasi. [369] Treni hii ilifanywa na magari kutoka kwa R1 kupitia R9 . Njia hiyo imesimama kati ya Avenue ya pili katika Manhattan na Queens Plaza huko Queens kupitia IND Line Avenue Line na IND Queens Boulevard Line. Mwaka 2011, treni iliendeshwa siku ya Jumamosi badala ya Jumapili. [370]

Mkataba, namba za gari (na mwaka ulijengwa) uliotumiwa ni Mvinyo , hasa R1 100 (iliyojengwa 1930), R1 381 (1931), R4 401 (1932), R4 484 (1932) - Taa za Bulls na mfumo wa mtihani wa PA uliongezwa katika 1946, R6 -3 1000 (1935), R6 -1 1300 (1937), R7A 1575 (1938) - ilijengwa mwaka 1947 kama mfano wa gari la barabara ya R10 , na R9 1802 (1940). [371]

Angalia pia

  • Orodha ya mifumo ya metro
  • Orodha ya Umoja wa Mataifa mifumo ya haraka ya usafiri na urithi
  • Graffiti huko New York
  • Reli ya Kisiwa cha Staten
  • Subway Challenge
  • New York City Subway katika utamaduni maarufu
  • Usafiri katika New York City

Vidokezo

  1. ^ These are the physical tracks that a train "service" runs on. See New York City Subway nomenclature for more information.
  2. ^ These "services" run on physical tracks. See New York City Subway nomenclature for more information.
  3. ^ a b There are 13 stations on the IND Second Avenue Line and 1 station on the IRT Flushing Line planned.
    • The Second Avenue Line has 3 active stations. [2] 13 of these are planned. [3]
    • The Tenth Avenue station will be constructed as an in-fill station once funding for it is secured. [4]
  4. ^ a b
    • Closed stations are usually not counted (except for Cortlandt Street (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line) , which is counted by the MTA). [5] Without counting Cortlandt Street, the figure is 471 stations (or 424 by international standards).
    • Both the Chambers Street–World Trade Center (IND Eighth Avenue Line) and Canal Street (BMT Broadway Line) stations are considered two stations each by the MTA. [5] If both of them are counted as one station each, the number of stations in the New York City Subway is 470 stations (or 425 by international standards).
  5. ^ The station is Cortlandt Street , an existing IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line station being completely rebuilt.
  6. ^ The IRT main line , which is considered to be the first New York City "subway" line, opened in 1904; however, the Ninth Avenue Line , a predecessor elevated railroad line, operated its first trial run on July 3, 1868 according to Facts and Figures 1979–80 , published by the New York City Transit Authority See also nycsubway.org ; and the West End Line , which opened in 1863. A small portion of the latter line's original right-of-way, part of an extension opened in 1864, is still in daily use near Coney Island . thethirdrail.net Archived May 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine .
  7. ^ Highest daily ridership since public takeover. In the first half of the 20th century, ridership was significantly higher.
  8. ^ There is one station ( 10th Avenue ) planned as a future infill station. See Outcry emerges for 41st St. stop on new 7-line
  9. ^ See also FASTRACK
  10. ^ The Times Square and Grand Central stations of the IRT 42nd Street Shuttle are closed during late nights.
  11. ^ See:

Marejeleo

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  2. ^ "web.mta.info/capital/sas_docs/final_summary_report.pdf" (PDF) .
  3. ^ "MTA releases Second Avenue subway images" .
  4. ^ "Outcry emerges for 41st St. stop on new 7-line" .
  5. ^ a b "Station Developers' Information" . Metropolitan Transportation Authority . Retrieved June 13, 2017 .
  6. ^ a b "1 Subway Line Profile" (PDF) . NYPRIG Straphangers Campaign . Retrieved February 28, 2016 .
  7. ^ a b "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Years Ended December 31, 2016 and 2015" (pdf) . Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) . July 26, 2017. p. 168 (PDF p. 169) . Retrieved August 8, 2017 .
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Facts & Figures – Subways" . www.nycsubway.org . Retrieved March 9, 2014 .
  9. ^ "The Railway Power Stations of New York City" . Engineering and Technology History . Retrieved September 13, 2016 .
  10. ^ a b "Average schedule speed: How does Metro compare?" .
  11. ^ a b Hood, Clifton (2004). 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York . Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8054-4 .
  12. ^ "Metropolitan Transportation Authority Description and Board Structure Covering Fiscal Year 2009" (PDF) . mta.info . Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2009 . Retrieved March 13, 2016 .
  13. ^ "What is the largest metro system in the world?" . CityMetric . Retrieved March 13, 2016 .
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "How to Ride the Subway" . Retrieved November 17, 2013 .
  15. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/29/nyregion/cuomo-declares-a-state-of-emergency-for-the-subway.html
  16. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/18/nyregion/new-york-subway-system-failure-delays.html
  17. ^ "Should New York's Subway Map Embrace NJ's PATH Trains?" . Curbed NY . Retrieved March 13, 2016 .
  18. ^ "AirTrain – Ground Transportation – John F. Kennedy International Airport – Port Authority of New York & New Jersey" . www.panynj.gov . Retrieved March 13, 2016 .
  19. ^ a b "MTA/New York City Transit – Where MetroCard Is Accepted" . web.mta.info . Retrieved March 13, 2016 .
  20. ^ "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Years Ended December 31, 2011 and 2010" (PDF) . Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) . May 2, 2012. p. 148. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2013 . Retrieved July 14, 2014 .
  21. ^ "Subways" . Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) . April 2, 2013 . Retrieved April 26, 2015 .
  22. ^ Emma G. Fitzsimmons (November 16, 2014). "M.T.A. Expected to Raise Fares and Tolls" . The New York Times . Retrieved November 18, 2014 .
  23. ^ Goldstein, Jack (October 8, 2013). 101 Amazing Facts About New York . Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 9781783333059 .
  24. ^ a b Brennan, Joseph (2005). "They found the tube in excellent condition" . Beach Pneumatic . Archived from the original on October 6, 2007 . Retrieved January 17, 2008 .
  25. ^ "Inventor of the Week: Archive" . March 6, 2014. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014 . Retrieved March 18, 2016 .
  26. ^ "The Pneumatic Tunnel Under Broadway (1870)" . nycsubway.org. Archived from the original on May 5, 2008 . Retrieved July 7, 2008 . (extract from Scientific American March 5, 1870)
  27. ^ nycsubway.org— Beach Pneumatic Transit
  28. ^ Blankinger, Kari (March 1, 2016). "NYC's first subway was luxurious, pneumatic and built illegally" . New York Daily News . Retrieved March 13, 2016 .
  29. ^ Martin, Douglas (November 17, 1996). "Subway Planners' Lofty Ambitions Are Buried as Dead-End Curiosities" . nytimes.com . The New York Times . Retrieved June 27, 2015 .
  30. ^ Santora, Marc (August 14, 2013). "When the New York City Subway Ran Without Rails" . The New York Times .
  31. ^ Christiano, G. J. "The Blizzard of 1888; the Impact of this Devastating Storm on New York Transit" . nycsubway.org . Retrieved February 9, 2016 .
  32. ^ a b "American Experience. Technology . New York Underground. About the Program | PBS" . www.pbs.org . Retrieved March 13, 2016 .
  33. ^ a b c d "New York City subway opens – Oct 27, 1904" . history.com . October 27, 1904 . Retrieved October 25, 2015 .
  34. ^ a b c d James Blaine Walker, Fifty Years of Rapid Transit, 1864–1917 , published 1918, pp. 162–191
  35. ^ "The 9th Avenue Elevated-Polo Grounds Shuttle" . nycsubway.org. 2012 . Retrieved July 3, 2014 .
  36. ^ "Specter of the 5¢ fare haunts the current fare hike debate" . Second Ave. Sagas . Retrieved February 25, 2016 .
  37. ^ "Our Subway Open, 150,000 Try It – Mayor McClellan Runs the First Official Train" . the New York Times . October 28, 1904 . Retrieved February 24, 2016 .
  38. ^ "Done at Last" . Brooklyn Daily Eagle . Brooklyn, NY . May 13, 1885. p. 1.
  39. ^ "Halsey Street Station Opened" . Brooklyn Daily Eagle . Brooklyn, NY . August 19, 1885. p. 4.
  40. ^ "A New Station Opened" . Brooklyn Daily Eagle . Brooklyn, NY . July 18, 1885. p. 4.
  41. ^ "East New York" . Brooklyn Daily Eagle . Brooklyn, NY . June 13, 1885. p. 6.
  42. ^ "Still Extending Its Lines" . Brooklyn Daily Eagle . Brooklyn, NY . September 5, 1885. p. 6.
  43. ^ a b "www.nycsubway.org: BMT Nassau Street-Jamaica Line" . www.nycsubway.org . Retrieved February 25, 2016 .
  44. ^ "Opening of a New Railroad" . Brooklyn Daily Eagle . Brooklyn, NY . October 5, 1863. p. 2.
  45. ^ "Railroads" . Brooklyn Daily Eagle . Brooklyn, NY . October 9, 1863. p. 1.
  46. ^ "The Third Rail – Gunther and his Railroad – page 1" . www.thethirdrail.net . Archived from the original on February 29, 2016 . Retrieved February 14, 2016 .
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